PRESIDIUM                                           
                                                                                
OF THE SUPREME SOVIET OF THE LITHUANIAN SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC               
                                                                                
                             DECREE                                             
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Under the Constitution of the Lithuanian SSR, the Lithuanian               
language shall be the official language of the Republic.                        
     In order  to ensure  the development  and  the  use  of  the               
Lithuanian language  in state  and social  life without abridging               
the constitutional  right of  those whose  native language is not               
Lithuanian to  use their  native language,  the Presidium  of the               
Supreme Soviet of the Lithuanian SSR  decrees:                                  
     1.   That the  Lithuanian language  shall  be  the  official               
language, that  is  the principal means of official communication               
for the  people of  the Republic.   Lithuanian  shall be  used in               
carrying out  the business  of state  and social  bodies, in  all               
spheres of  public education,  culture, science, industry, public               
services, communications  and other  areas of social life, and in               
all  enterprises,   institutions,  and   organisations   of   the               
Lithuanian SSR,  irrespective of  their  institutional  chain  of               
command (with the exception of the armed forces).                               
     2.   That the  highest bodies of state power and government,               
ministries, departments,  Soviets of  People's Deputies and their               
executive   committees,    social   organisations,   enterprises,               
institutions,  and   other  organisations   shall  conduct  their               
business and correspondence in the Lithuanian language.                         
     Enterprises, institutions  and organisations  whose internal               
business until  recently was  conducted in  the Russian language,               
shall begin  to make  the transition  to conducting  business and               
correspondence in  the Lithuanian  language within two years from               
the date  of entry  into force  of this Decree. In certain cases,               
for valid  reasons, and  with the  permission of the Presidium of               
the Supreme  Soviet of  the Lithuanian  SSR,   this  transitional               
period may  be extended  by particular  enterprises, institutions               
and  organisations   for  an  additional  year,  but  these  must               
guarantee that  other organisations and citizens will be provided               
with the  opportunity to  communicate with them, resolve problems               
and receive documents in the Lithuanian language.                               
     Correspondence with  the  bodies  of  state  power  and  the               
government of  the Union  of  Soviet  Socialist  Republics,  with               
ministries and  departments, social  organisations,  enterprises,               
institutions, and  other organisations  beyond the borders of the               
Lithuanian SSR,  shall be conducted in the Russian language or in               
whatever language is acceptable to both parties.                                
     3. That  laws of  the Lithuanian  SSR, acts  of the  Supreme               
Soviet of  the Lithuanian  SSR and its Presidium, resolutions and               
directives of  the Council  of Ministers, and documents of social               
organisations  shall   be  issued  in  the  Lithuanian  language,               
promulgated in the Lithuanian language, and, as necessary, in the               
Russian language as well.                                                       
     Resolutions, directives,  and other documents of ministries,               
departments, the Soviets of People's Deputies and their executive               
committees, enterprises, institutions, and organisations shall be               
issued in  the Lithuanian  language and, if necessary, translated               
into another language.                                                          
     4. That  official assemblies,  sessions,  plenary  sessions,               
meetings,  sittings,   congresses,  and  other  events  shall  be               
conducted in  the Lithuanian  language.   Persons who do not know               
Lithuanian shall  have the  right to speak in their language.  In               
such cases, their language will be translated into Lithuanian.                  
     5.   That seals,  business forms,  signs and plaques used in               
offices and  in public  places, as  well as designations on goods               
produced in  the Republic and their descriptions, shall be in the               
Lithuanian language. Official letterhead and other documents used               
in  international  and  all  Union  correspondence,  as  well  as               
correspondence with  the republics  of the USSR shall be provided               
in Lithuanian and in translation into other languages.                          
     6.   That heads  and other  senior officers  of the  supreme               
bodies of  state power  and government  of  the  Lithuanian  SSR,               
ministries, departments,  the Soviets  of People's  Deputies  and               
their executive  committees, social  organisations,  enterprises,               
institutions, and  other organisations of the Republic shall know               
the Lithuanian language.                                                        
     Senior  officers   of  the  People's  Courts,  state  notary               
offices,  bodies   of  the   Procuracy  and   Internal   affairs,               
institutions of  public health,  social security,  trade,  public               
service, transportation,  communications,  finance,  housing,  as               
well as  other institutions  shall provide  their services in the               
Lithuanian  language  or  in  the  language  acceptable  to  both               
parties.                                                                        
     7.   That the  people  of  the  Lithuanian  SSR  shall  have               
schooling  and   obtain  elementary   and  secondary   education,               
vocational, specialised  and higher  education in  the Lithuanian               
language.   For persons whose native language is a language other               
than Lithuanian,  so that  they may  take an  active part  in the               
state, public,  and cultural  life of  the Republic,  and so that               
they may   avail  themselves of  education   at  institutions  of               
higher learning  of the  Lithuanian SSR,  adequate means shall be               
provided for  such persons  to learn  the Lithuanian  language in               
educational institutions where the language of instruction is not               
Lithuanian, as  well as  in special  courses  provided  for  that               
purpose.                                                                        
     8.   That persons  whose native language is a language other               
than Lithuanian  shall be  provided   with appropriate facilities               
for organising  preschool education,  classes,    elementary  and               
secondary education,  for training teachers, for publishing books               
and newspapers  in their  native language,  and for  establishing               
societies of  language and  culture,  clubs,  museums,  theatres,               
musical groups, etc.                                                            
     In  preschool   educational  institutions,   elementary  and               
secondary schools,  and cultural  organisations  established  for               
persons  whose   native  language   is  other   than  Lithuanian,               
correspondence  and  other  business  may  be  conducted  in  the               
appropriate language.                                                           
     9. That  state government bodies of the Lithuanian SSR shall               
enhance  the   prestige  of  the  Lithuanian  language,  preserve               
Lithuanian personal  names and  place names,  as well  as provide               
general assistance  to  scholarly  institutions  devoted  to  the               
Lithuanian language,  and create the material basis necessary for               
the  development,  research,  and  expansion  of  the  Lithuanian               
language.  At the same time, conditions shall be provided for the               
development of other languages used in the Republic.                            
     The Lithuanian  SSR shall  contribute to  the schooling  and               
study of the Lithuanian language outside Lithuania.                             
     10.   That heads  of ministries, departments, the Soviets of               
People's Deputies  and their  executive committees,  enterprises,               
institutions, and organisations shall be directly responsible for               
the  implementation   of  this  Decree  within  their  respective               
institutions.                                                                   
     The Council of Ministers of the Lithuanian SSR shall oversee               
the implementation of this Decree throughout the Republic.                      
     The Council  of Ministers shall be responsible for providing               
facilities for the implementation of this Decree.                               
                                                                                
Vytautas Astrauskas                          Jonas Gureckas                     
                                                                                
Chairman                                     Secretary                          
Supreme Soviet                               Supreme Soviet                     
Lithuanian Soviet                            Lithuanian Soviet                  
Socialist Republic                           Socialist Republic                 
                                                                                
25 January 1989