REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                                     
                                                                                
                            COURT LAW                                           
                                                                                
                            PART ONE                                            
                                                                                
          SYSTEM OF COURTS IN THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                         
                                                                                
     Article 1. Courts in Lithuania                                             
                                                                                
     1.  In   the  Republic   of  Lithuania,   justice  shall  be               
administered through  district courts,  area courts, the Court of               
Appeal of  Lithuania, and  the Supreme Court of Lithuania, all of               
which shall be formed in accordance with the State laws.                        
     2. The  courts in  the Republic  of Lithuania  shall act  as               
independent juridical  persons and  shall possess  a seal bearing               
the State Emblem.                                                               
                                                                                
     Article 2. District Courts                                                 
                                                                                
     A district  court shall  consist  of  a  chairperson,  vice-               
chairpersons,  and   judges.  The   vice-chairpersons  shall   be               
appointed in a court of no less than six judges.                                
                                                                                
     Article 3. Area Courts                                                     
                                                                                
     1. An  area court shall consist of a chairperson, department               
chairpersons, and judges.                                                       
     2. An  area court shall have a department of civil case and a              
department of criminal cases.                                                   
     3. The  jurisdiction of  area courts shall be established by               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 3. The Court of Appeal of Lithuania                                
                                                                                
     1. The  Court of  Appeal of  the Lithuanian  Republic  shall               
consist of a chairperson, department chairpersons, and judges.                  
     2. The  Court of Appeal shall embody the department of civil               
cases and the department of criminal cases.                                     
     3. The  headquarters of  the Court  of Appeal  shall  be  in               
Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.                                              
                                                                                
     Article 5. The Supreme Court of Lithuania                                  
                                                                                
     1.  The  Supreme  Court  shall  consist  of  a  chairperson,               
department chairpersons, and judges.                                            
     2. The  Supreme Court  shall embody  the department of civil               
cases, the  department of  criminal  cases,  and  the  Senate  of               
Lithuanian judges.                                                              
     3. The  headquarters  of  the  Supreme  Court  shall  be  in               
Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania.                                              
                                                                                
     Article 6. The Number of Judges                                            
                                                                                
     1. The  number of  judges in  district and area courts and in              
the Court  of Appeal  shall  be established by the Supreme Council              
of the  Republic of Lithuania upon the proposal of the Chairperson              
of the Supreme Court and the Minister of Justice.                               
     2. The  number of  judges in  the  Supreme  Court  shall  be               
established by  the Supreme  Council of the Republic of Lithuania               
in accordance with a proposal from the chairperson of the Supreme               
Court.                                                                          
     3. A district court must have at least two judges.                         
                                                                                
     Part Two. Court Jurisdiction                                               
                                                                                
     Article 7. District Court Jurisdiction                                     
                                                                                
     District courts  shall be considered to be of first instance               
for:                                                                            
     1) civil cases;                                                            
     2) criminal cases;                                                         
     3) administrative cases;                                                   
     4) cases  connected with  the  execution  of  judgements  or               
sentences; and                                                                  
     5) cases  connected with the investigation or examination of               
actions of officials.                                                           
                                                                                
     Article 8. Area Court Jurisdiction                                         
                                                                                
     Area Courts shall be considered to be:                                     
     1) of  first instance for civil cases which are attributed by              
law to their jurisdiction;                                                      
     2) of  first instance for criminal cases which are attributed              
by law to their jurisdiction;                                                   
     3)  of   appeal  instance  for  the  judgements,  sentences,               
decisions, and resolutions of the district courts; and                          
     4) of  cassation  instance  for  the  judgements,  sentences,              
decisions and  resolutions of the district courts, after they come              
into force.                                                                     
                                                                                
     Article 9. Jurisdiction of the Court of Appeal                             
                                                                                
     The Court  of Appeal  shall be  considered to  be of  appeal               
instance for cases which were investigated by an area court as of               
first instance.                                                                 
                                                                                
     Article 10. Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court                              
                                                                                
     1. The  Supreme Court shall be considered to be of cassation               
instance for  the judgement, sentences, decisions and resolutions               
of the  area courts  after they  come into  force, as well as for               
cases of the Court of Appeal.                                                   
     2. The  Supreme Court shall publish a periodical bulletin of               
the practice of the courts.                                                     
                                                                                
     Part Three. The Senate of Lithuanian Judges                                
                                                                                
     Article 11. The Structure of the Senate                                    
                                                                                
     1. The  Senate of  Lithuanian Judges  shall consist  of  the               
chairperson of  the Supreme  Court, its  departments chairpersons               
and  judges,   the  chairperson  of  the  Court  of  Appeal,  and               
chairpersons of the area courts.                                                
     2. The  secretary of  the Senate  shall be selected from the               
judges of the Supreme Court by the Senate.                                      
     3. The  chairperson of  the Supreme  Court shall  act as the               
chairperson of the Senate.                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 12. The Jurisdiction of the Senate of Judges                       
                                                                                
     1. The Senate of Judges shall:                                             
     1) examine,  on the  request of the chairperson, the courts'               
practice and give recommendations on the application of laws;                   
     2)  investigate   complaints  concerning  decisions  of  the               
Examination Committees of Judges and the Judges' Court of Honour.               
     The decision of the Senate of Judges shall be final.                       
     2. The  Minister of Justice and Procurator General shall have              
the right to propose that the chairperson of the Senate  consider               
questions of the courts' practice, participate in the sessions of               
the Senate,  and express  his or  her opinion on the issues being               
discussed.                                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 13. Sessions of the Senate of Judges                               
                                                                                
     1. Sessions  of the  Senate of Judges shall be called by the               
chairperson of the Senate no less than once every six months.                   
     2. The  agenda of  the session  shall be  announced and  the               
drafts of  documents shall  be sent  to the judges of the Senate,               
the Minister  of Justice,  and the  Procurator General  at  least               
thirty days before the beginning of the session.                                
     3. Session  shall be  considered to be lawful if at least two              
thirds of the members of the Senate participate therein. Decisions              
shall be  made by  open ballot.  Decisions  shall  be  adopted  by              
majority vote of the participants of the session.                               
     4. Resolutions  of the  Senate of  Judges shall be signed by               
the Senate chairperson and secretary.                                           
                                                                                
     Part Four. Judges and Court Candidates                                     
                                                                                
     Article 14. District Court Judges                                          
                                                                                
     Persons may  be nominated  to district  judge if they are at               
least 25  years old,  are a citizen of the Republic of Lithuania,               
have higher  juridical education,  meet the  physical  and  moral               
demands of the profession of judge, have practiced law as a court               
member or  candidate for  two years, and have passed the district               
judge examinations.                                                             
                                                                                
     Article 15. Judges of Area Courts and the Court of Appeal                  
                                                                                
     District judges may be nominated to judge of an area court or              
the Court  of Appeal  if they have been practicing law as a judge,              
procurator, assistant  procurator, lawyer, or state arbiter for at              
least three  years and  have passed  the examinations for the area              
court or the Court of Appeal.                                                   
                                                                                
     Article 16. Supreme Court Judges                                           
                                                                                
     1. Judges  of area  courts or  the Court  of Appeal  may  be               
nominated to Supreme Court judge if they have been practicing law               
as a  judge, procurator,  lawyer, or  state arbiter  for at least               
five years and have passed the Supreme Court judge examinations.                
     2. Citizens  of the  Republic of  Lithuania may be nominated               
without examinations  to Supreme  Court judges  if they  have  an               
academic law degree.                                                            
     3. In exceptional cases, district judges may be nominated to               
Supreme Court  judge if they have practiced law as a judge for at               
least  five  years  and  have  passed  the  Supreme  Court  judge               
examinations.                                                                   
                                                                                
     Article 17. Court Candidates                                               
                                                                                
     1. Citizens  of the  Republic  of  Lithuania  having  higher               
juridical education may be nominated as court candidates.                       
     2. The  Minister of  Justice shall appoint a court candidate               
to work  on probation  for no  more than  two years at a district               
court.                                                                          
     3. If  a court  candidate does  not pass  the district judge               
examinations, he  or  she  shall  be  relieved  of  the  post  of               
candidate.                                                                      
     4. Court  candidates  shall  work  on  probation  under  the               
guidance of  the court chairperson. The programme for probational               
work shall  be confirmed  by the  Minister  of  Justice  and  the               
Supreme Court chairperson.                                                      
                                                                                
     Part Five. Judge Examinations                                              
                                                                                
     Article 18. Examination Committees of District Court Judges                
                                                                                
     The examination  committees of  the  district  court  judges               
shall be  nominated in  each area and shall consist of three area               
court judges according to an order of the Minister of Justice.                  
                                                                                
     Article 19.  The Examination Committee of Supreme Court, the               
Court of Appeal, and Area Court Judges                                          
                                                                                
     The examination committee of the Supreme Court, the Court of               
Appeal, and  area courts  shall consist  of three judges from the               
Supreme Court,  who shall  be appointed  by order  of the Supreme               
Court chairperson.                                                              
                                                                                
     Article 20. Programme and Regulations for Judge Examinations               
                                                                                
     The judge  examination programme  and regulations  shall  be               
confirmed by  the Supreme  Court chairperson  and the Minister of               
Justice.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 21. Judge Examinations                                             
                                                                                
     Examinations shall be taken:                                               
     1) by  persons, before  being nominated  as candidates  to a               
judge's post;                                                                   
     2) by  judges, before being given a new assignment in an area              
court, the Court of Appeal, or the Supreme Court.                               
                                                                                
     Part Six. Appointment of Judges                                            
                                                                                
     Article 22. Appointment of District Court Judges                           
                                                                                
     1. Candidates  to district  court judge shall be selected by               
the Minister of Justice, primarily from the court candidates.                   
     2.  District  court  judges  shall  be  appointed    by  the               
Presidium of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania based               
on a  presentation of the Minister of Justice and the conclusions               
of the examination committee.                                                   
     3. The  Minister of  Justice shall  appoint  district  court               
judges to their working posts.                                                  
     4.  The   Minister  of   Justice  shall  appoint  the  court               
chairpersons and vice-chairpersons.                                             
                                                                                
     Article 23. Appointment of Area Court and the Court of                     
               Appeal Judges                                                    
                                                                                
     1. Judges  of area  courts and  the Court of Appeal shall be               
selected by  the Supreme  Court chairperson  in coordination with               
the Minister of Justice.                                                        
     2. Judges  of area  courts and  the Court of Appeal shall be               
appointed by the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic               
of Lithuania,  based on  a  presentation  of  the  Supreme  Court               
chairperson and the conclusions of the examination committee.                   
     3.  Judges  nominated  to  the  Court  of  Appeal  shall  be               
confirmed by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                  
                                                                                
     Article 24. Appointment of the Supreme Court Chairperson and               
               Department Chairpersons                                          
                                                                                
     The   Supreme   Court   chairperson   and   the   department               
chairpersons shall  be appointed  by the  Supreme Council  of the               
Republic of  Luithuania upon  the proposal  of the Chairperson of               
the Supreme Council.                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 25. Appointment of Supreme Court Judges                            
                                                                                
     1. Judges  of the  Supreme Court  shall be  selected by  the               
chairperson of the Supreme Court.                                               
     2. Judges  of the  Supreme Courts  shall be appointed by the               
Supreme  Council  of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania,  based  on  a               
presentation of the Supreme Court chairperson and the conclusions               
of the judges examination committee.                                            
                                                                                
     Article 26. Term of Office                                                 
                                                                                
     The term  of office for a judge in the Republic of Lithuania               
shall be  five years. Upon the expiration of the term, judges may               
hold office:  women - until the age of 60, men - until the age of               
65.                                                                             
                                                                                
     Article 27. The Transfer of District Court Judges to the                   
               Same Post in Another Court                                       
                                                                                
     The Minister  of Justice  may transfer district court judges               
to the same post and status in another court upon their consent.                
                                                                                
     Article 28. Substitution of District Court Judges                          
                                                                                
     If a  district court  judge falls  ill or  if the  judge  is               
absent for  another reason, the Minister of Justice may appoint a               
temporary substitute from a different district to fill this post.               
                                                                                
     Part 7. Court Chairpersons and their Assistants                            
                                                                                
     Article 29. Court Chairpersons                                             
                                                                                
     1. The  chairperson of the court shall administer justice and              
guide the court.                                                                
     2. The  chairperson, in examining cases, shall have the same               
rights and duties as the other court judges.                                    
     3. The  chairperson shall  not have  the right  to influence               
the other judges in the administration of justice.                              
     4. In  cases provided  by law,  the court  chairpersons shall              
have the  right  to examine complaints concerning resolutions made              
by the judges in the general process.                                           
                                                                                
          Article 30. District Court Chairpersons                               
                                                                                
     The district court chairperson shall organize the work of the              
judges so  that they  have equal  volumes of work, shall guide the              
court candidates,  and shall hire and dismiss office employees and              
other officials.                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 31. District Court Vice-Chairpersons                               
                                                                                
     1. The  district  court  vice-chairperson  shall  administer               
justice and  bear responsibility  for the work which the district               
court chairpersons charges him or her with.                                     
     2. The  district court vice-chairperson, in  examining cases,              
shall have the same rights and duties as the other court judges.                
     3. The  district court  vice-chairperson shall  not have the               
right to  influence the  other judges  in the  administration  of               
justice.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 32. Chairpersons of Area Courts and the Court of                   
               Appeal                                                           
                                                                                
     The chairpersons  of area  courts and  the Court  of  Appeal               
shall hire and dismiss  office employees and other officials.                   
                                                                                
     Article 33. Chairpersons of Area Courts, the Court of                      
               Appeal, and the Supreme Court                                    
                                                                                
     The chairpersons  of the  area courts,  the Court of Appeal,               
and the  Supreme Court shall administer justice, distribute cases               
for the judges, and organise office work.                                       
                                                                                
     Article 34. The Supreme Court Chairperson                                  
                                                                                
     The Supreme  Court chairperson  shall  call  the  Senate  of               
judges, and  shall hire  and dismiss  office employees  and other               
officials.                                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 35. Substitution of Court Chairpersons                             
                                                                                
     1. In  the absence  of the chairperson of an area court, the               
Court of  Appeal, or  the Supreme  Court, the  Presidium  of  the               
Supreme Council  of the Republic of Lithuania shall charge one of               
the department  chairpersons of  the respective  court  with  the               
office.                                                                         
     2.  In  the  absence  of  both  the  chairperson  and  vice-               
chairperson of  a district court, the office shall temporarily be               
filled by  a judge  of the respective district court on the order               
of the Minister of Justice.                                                     
                                                                                
     Part 8. The Oath and Distinguishing Symbols of Judges                      
                                                                                
     Article 36. Symbols of Power of Judges and Courts                          
                                                                                
     1. In  accordance with  the  procedure  established  by  the               
Presidium of  the Supreme  Council of  the Republic of Lithuania,               
the State  Banner and  State Emblem  must be  displayed in  court               
rooms during sessions.                                                          
     2. The  symbols of  power  of  judges  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania shall  be the  mantle and  the symbol bearing the State               
emblem.                                                                         
     3. The  Presidium of  the Supreme  Court of  the Republic of               
Lithuania shall  establish the  sample  of  judges'  symbols  and               
certificates.                                                                   
     4. In  accordance with  the  procedure  established  by  the               
Presidium of  the Supreme  Court of  the Republic  of  Lithuania,               
lawyers and  procurators shall wear judges' mantles during  court               
sessions.                                                                       
                                                                                
     Article 37. The Judge's Oath                                               
                                                                                
     1. Persons nominated to the post of judge must, before taking              
office, take  an oath  to the  Supreme Council or the Presidium of              
the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania which shall read as              
follows: "I,  judge (name),  swear allegiance  to the  Republic of              
Lithuania,   swear to respect its Constitution and laws, to defend              
human  rights,   freedom,  and  legal  interests,  to  always  act              
honourably and  humanely, and to never let my behaviour damage the              
title of Judge.                                                                 
So help me God."                                                                
     The last line may be omitted from the oath.                                
                                                                                
     2. Judges  must sign  the text  of the  oath, which shall be               
kept in their personal file.                                                    
     3. The  oath shall be valid during the judge's entire term of              
service in the Lithuanian courts.                                               
     4. Persons  nominated as  judge who  have not taken the oath               
shall not have the right to take office.                                        
                                                                                
     Part 9. Independence of the Judge and Court                                
                                                                                
     Article 38. Independence of the Judge                                      
                                                                                
     1.  Judges   and  courts   administering  justice   shall  be              
independent in obeying the law and their own conscience, and shall              
be  responsible   to  the  Supreme  Council  of  the  Republic  of              
Lithuania.                                                                      
     2. In  making   decisions, the  court shall  observe only the              
laws which  do not  contradict the Constitution of the Republic of              
Lithuania, as well as the resolutions and orders of the Government              
which do not contradict the laws, and other standard acts which do              
not contradict  the laws  or the  resolutions and  orders  of  the              
Government.                                                                     
     3.  Interference   of  State  authorities  or  institutions,               
political parties,  public organizations or movements, officials,               
or other  persons in  the work  of  judges  of  courts  shall  be               
prohibited  and   shall   ensue   juridical   responsibility   as               
established by law.                                                             
     4. Meetings, pickets and other actions which are carried out               
in court  or within  the progibited  boundary established  by law               
around the  court with  the aim of influencing the judges or jury               
shall be  considered interference  with the work of the judges or               
jury.                                                                           
                                                                                
     Article 39. The Inviolability of the Judge                                 
                                                                                
     1. Judges may not be arrested or prosecuted without  special               
permission from  the Supreme  Council or  the  Presidium  of  the               
Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                                   
     2. Criminal  actions may only be brought against judges with               
the permission of the Procurator's General.                                     
     3. Upon  being charged  with a criminal action, judges shall               
have their  powers termintated  by the  Supreme  Council  or  the               
Presidium of  the Supreme  Council of  the Republic of Lithuania,               
based on a presentation of the Procurator General.                              
     4. Administrative  actions may not be brought against judges.              
If a  judge breaks  the administrative  law, evidence  against the              
judge shall  be passed  on to  the  Minister  of  Justice  or  the              
chairperson of  the Supreme Court in order to bring a disciplinary              
case against the judge.                                                         
                                                                                
     Article 40. Obligation of Requirements of Judges                           
                                                                                
     The requirements  of  judges  when  they  are  administering               
justice are  obligatory for  every physical and juridical person.               
Violation   of    the   requirements    shall   ensue   juridical               
responsibility.                                                                 
                                                                                
     Article 41. The Depolitization of Judges                                   
                                                                                
     1. Persons  nominated as  judges must  stop their activities               
and  membership   in  all   political  parties,  social-political               
movements, and other political organization.                                    
     2. Judges  may join together into associations of lawyers or               
judges.                                                                         
                                                                                
     Article 42. Restrictions on the Work of Judges Outside of                  
               Court                                                            
                                                                                
     Judges shall  not have  the right to hold more than one job,               
with the exeption of pedagogical and scientific work.                           
                                                                                
     Part 10. Social Guarantees for Judges                                      
                                                                                
     Article 43.  Pensions for Judges                                           
                                                                                
     The laws  of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania  shall  guarantee               
pensions for judges.                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 44. Housing Accomadations for Judges                               
                                                                                
     1. Judges  shall be  provided with  apartments in accordance               
with the state laws of the Republic of Lithuania.                               
     2. Persons  nominated as  judges and  appointed in  a  place               
where they  do not  have housing  shall, in  accordance with  the               
procedure established  by the  Government, be  provided  with  an               
official apartment or shall receive rent compensation if they are               
renting living  space in  a building which is not the property of               
the local government.                                                           
                                                                                
     Article 45. Judges' Vacations                                              
                                                                                
     The vacation  time of judges shall be established by the laws              
of the Republic of Lithuania.                                                   
                                                                                
     Article 46. Wages and Other Social Guarantees for Judges                   
                                                                                
     1. Judges'  wages and  bonuses shall  be established  by the               
Presidium of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                  
     2. Accident  insurance and other social guarantees for judges              
shall be esablished by the laws of the Republic of Lithuania.                   
                                                                                
     Part 11. Dismissal, Recall and Disciplinary Responsibility                 
               of Judges                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 47. Dismissal of Judges                                            
                                                                                
     The Supreme  Council or  the Presidium of the Supreme Council              
of the  Republic of  Lithuania shall  have the  right to dimiss  a              
judge based  on a presentation from the Minister of Justice or the              
Supreme Court chairperson if the judge:                                         
     1) is ill;                                                                 
     2) takes a new office or is tranferred to another job on his               
or her own consent;                                                             
     3) so desires;                                                             
     4) reaches the age indicated in Article 26.                                
                                                                                
     Article 48. Recalling a Judge                                              
                                                                                
     1. A  judge may  be recalled if his or her behavior  damaged               
the title  of judge  or if  a sentence  with which  he or  she is               
charged comes into force.                                                       
     2. The  Supreme Council  or the  Presidium  of  the  Supreme               
Council of  the Republic  of Lithuania  shall have  the right  to               
recall a judge on the grounds of a presentation from the Minister               
of Justice or the Supreme Court chairperson.                                    
                                                                                
     Article 49. The Court of Honour of Judges                                  
                                                                                
     1. The  Presidium of  the Supreme Council of the Republic of               
Lithuania shall  form the  Court of  Honour  consisting  of  five               
Supreme  Court   judges  as   presented  by   the  Supreme  Court               
chairperson.                                                                    
     2.  The   Supreme  Court   chairperson  and  the  department               
chairpersons shall  not have the right to be members of the Court               
of Honour.                                                                      
     3. The  Court of Honour shall be one for all of the judges of              
the Republic of Lithuania.                                                      
     4. The  Court of  Honour shall examine disciplinary suits in               
accordance  with   the  present  law  and  the  Court  of  Honour               
regulations, which  shall be  confirmed by the Supreme Council of               
the Republic of Lithuania.                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 50. Disciplinary Responsibility of Judges                          
                                                                                
     1. A judge shall be responsible for:                                       
     1) carelessness of duties;                                                 
     2) official fault that may damage the authority of a judge;                
     3) behaviour which marrs the title of a judge; and                         
     4) administrative fault.                                                   
     2.  Abolishment   of  a   verdict,  sentence,   decision  or               
resolution of  the court  cannot serve  as a basis for bringing a               
disciplinary action against a judge.                                            
     3. The  Supreme Court  chairpersons shall  have the  right to              
bring a  disciplinary suit against a judge for the above mentioned              
faults.                                                                         
     4. A  disciplinary action  against a  district judge  may be               
brought by the Minister of Justice.                                             
                                                                                
     Article 51. Imposition of  Fines                                           
                                                                                
     1. Upon  examining a  disciplinary suit against a judge, the               
Court of Honour may:                                                            
     1) declare a reproof;                                                      
     2) declare an official reprimand;                                          
     3) declare a severe reprimand; or                                          
     4) propose a recall.                                                       
                                                                                
     2. The Court of Honour has the power to:                                   
     1) acquit a judge;                                                         
     2) confine itself to the hearing of the case; and                          
     3) cancel  a case  if the  reason for  its  examination  has               
passed.                                                                         
                                                                                
     3. A  judge may  appeal against a resolution of the Court of               
Honour to the Senate of Judges within ten days of its adoption.                 
                                                                                
     Part 12. The Main Principles of Court Activities                           
                                                                                
     Article 52. Justice Shall be Administered Solely by the                    
               Court                                                            
                                                                                
     1. In  the Republic  of Lithuania,  only the above mentioned               
courts shall have the right to administer justice, and shall pass               
judgements  and   sentences  in  the  name  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
     2. The  courts of  emergency powers shall not have the right               
to be formed in the Republic of Lithuania.                                      
                                                                                
     Article 53. Equality before the Law                                        
                                                                                
     In the  Republic of Lithuania, all legal and natural persons               
shall be  equal before  the law  and court,  regardless of  their               
social or  material position,  duties, party  membership, origin,               
race, nationality,  religion, beliefs,  education, occupation, or               
other conditions.                                                               
                                                                                
     Article 54. Right to Court Defence                                         
                                                                                
     1. Al  citizens of  the Republic of Lithuania shall have the               
right to court defence for enchroachment on their life or health,               
personal liberty,  private property,  personal honor  or dignity,               
and other  rights and  liberties  which  are  guaranteed  by  the               
Constitution, as  well as  for the  illegal  actions  of    state               
powers, institutions or officials.                                              
     2. Foreign  citizens and  persons without  citizenship shall               
have the  same right to court defence as citizens of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
     3. Legal persons shall also have the right to court defence.               
                                                                                
     Article 55. Presumption of Innocence                                       
                                                                                
     A person  shall  be  considered  innocent  until  a  verdict               
confirming his or her guilt comes into force.                                   
                                                                                
     Article 56. The Right to Defence and Juridical Help                        
                                                                                
     1. The  right to defence shall be guaranteed both for persons              
suspected of  having committed  a crime  and for  persons who have              
been accused  from the very beginning of the investigation as well              
as in court.                                                                    
     2. In criminal cases, lawyers shall ensure the defence while               
in civil  or administrative  cases other  persons approved by law               
shall render juridical aid together with the lawyers.                           
                                                                                
     Article 57. The Contending Principle and Publicity of the                  
               Court Process                                                    
                                                                                
     1. Cases  shall be  investigated in  courts publicly  and in               
accordance with the law.                                                        
     2.  In   situations  defined   by  law,     cases  shall  be               
investigated  at   closed  meetings,   although  the  verdict  or               
resolution adopted shall nevertheless be partially made public.                 
                                                                                
     Article 58. Language of the Court                                          
                                                                                
     1. The language of the court shall be Lithuanian.                          
     2. The  court shall  guarantee the service of an interpreter               
for those persons who do not speak the Lithuanian language.                     
                                                                                
     Part 13. Investigation of a Case in Court                                  
                                                                                
     Article 59. Investigation of Cases in District Courts                      
                                                                                
     In district courts, the judge shall investigate cases alone.               
                                                                                
     Article 60. Investigation of Cases in Area Courts,  the                    
               Court of Appeal, and the Supreme Court                           
                                                                                
     In area  courts, the  Court of  Appeal and the Supreme Court               
all cases,  including cassation, shall be investigated by a board               
of three  judges who shall be appointed by the chairperson of the               
respective court or department.                                                 
                                                                                
     Article 61. Participation of the Procurator                                
                                                                                
     The Procurator  General of  the Republic  of  Lithuania  and               
procurators subordinate  to him  or her  shall have  the right to               
participate in  the investigation  processes  in  all  Lithuanian               
courts. The procurators' rights shall be defined by law.                        
                                                                                
     Article 62. Record of Court Proceedings                                    
                                                                                
     1.  Court   proceedings  shall  be  recorded  by  the  court               
secretary, who shall be an official of the office of the court.                 
     2.  The   records  shall  be  signed  by  the  judge  (board               
chairperson) and  the secretary. Authenticity of the record shall               
be testified by persons who gave evidence or explanations as well               
as by  other trial  participants in accordance with the procedure               
established by law.                                                             
     3. Before  taking office,  the court secretary shall sign an               
official engagement,  the content  and form  of  which  shall  be               
approved by the Minister of Justice.                                            
                                                                                
     Part 14. Work Conditions in Court                                          
                                                                                
     Article 63. Court Work Guarantees                                          
                                                                                
     1. The  proper work conditions in courts shall be ensured by               
the State.                                                                      
     2. The  activities of district and area courts and the Court               
of Appeal  shall  be  ensured  by  the  Minister  of  Justice  in               
accordance with  the principle  of  independence  of  courts  and               
judges as established by this law.                                              
     3. The  activities of  the  Supreme  Court  as  well  as  its              
technical  provision   shall  be   ensured  by  the  corresponding              
departments of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania in              
accordance with  the  principle  of  independence  of  courts  and              
judges.                                                                         
     4. The  Minister of  Justice shall  control the  court  work               
statistics.                                                                     
                                                                                
     Article 64. Court Office                                                   
                                                                                
     1. Every  court shall  have an  office which  shall  help to               
regulate the  court work.  The constituent  body of the office is               
the archives.                                                                   
     2. Work  in the office shall be organized by the head of the               
office.                                                                         
     3. The work of the office and archives as well as statistics               
control in  the district  or area  courts and the Court of Appeal               
shall be  regulated by the instructions confirmed by the Minister               
of Justice.                                                                     
     4. The  office work  of the Supreme Court shall be regulated               
by the  instructions confirmed  by the chairperson of the Supreme               
Court.                                                                          
                                                                                
     Article 65. Court Work Control and Financial Activity                      
                                                                                
     The work  of the  district and  area courts and the Court of               
Appeal  as   well   as   their   financial   activities   (except               
administering justice)  shall be  controlled and  revised by  the               
Ministry of Justice, while the activities of the Supreme Court --               
by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                            
                                                                                
     Part 15. Court Bailiff                                                     
                                                                                
     Article 66. Process of Execution                                           
                                                                                
     1. Court  resolutions and  other decisions  approved by  law               
shall be carried out by a district court bailiff.                               
     2. The  request of  the court  bailiff during the process of               
execution shall  be obligatory  for all  physical  and  juridical               
persons in the Republic of Lithuania.                                           
     3. In  the process  of Execution, the court bailiff shall be               
guided by  laws and  instructions confirmed  by the  Minister  of               
Justice.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 67. Court Bailiff                                                  
                                                                                
     1. A  person who  is at  least 23 years old, is a citizen of               
the Republic  of Lithuania,  has, as  a rule, higher or secondary               
juridical  education,   and  has   passed  the   court  bailiff's               
examinations may be nominated as court bailiff.                                 
     2. The  Minister of  Justice shall have the right to hire or               
dismiss bailiffs and regulate their number in judicial bodies.                  
                                                                                
     Article 68.  Senior Court Bailiff                                          
                                                                                
     1. If  there are two or more bailiffs in a court, one of them              
shall be appointed by the Minister of Justice as senior bailiff.                
     2. If  there is only one bailiff in a court, he or she shall               
be considered the senior bailiff.                                               
     3. Senior bailiffs shall organize and control the activities               
of other  bailiffs, carry  out execution  work, run  the  bailiff               
office, and hire and dismiss office employees.                                  
                                                                                
     Article 69. Court Bailiff Examinations                                     
                                                                                
     The  examination   program  shall   be  confirmed   and  the               
examination committee shall be formed by the Minister of Justice,               
selecting people from the Ministry officials and court bailiffs.                
                                                                                
     Article 70. Responsibility of Court Bailiffs                               
                                                                                
     1. Court  bailiffs shall  be responsible  for  the  material               
damage which  is caused  by their  fault. For  this  reason,  the               
Ministry of  Justice and  the bailiff  shall sign an agreement on               
the bailiff's full material responsibility.                                     
     2. The  activities of  court bailiffs  shall be controlled by              
the Minister  of Justice while their financial activities shall be              
controlled by the State Tax inspection.                                         
                                                                                
     Article 71. Protection of Court Bailiffs                                   
                                                                                
     1. Court bailiffs shall be protected by law.                               
     2. Court  bailiffs shall  be guaranteed police assistance if               
they are resisted while fulfilling their duties.                                
                                                                                
     Article 72. Complaints Concerning the Actions of Bailiffs                  
                                                                                
     Complaints concerning  a bailiff's  actions while fulfilling               
his or  her duties  shall be examined in court in accordance with               
the established procedure.                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 73. The Court Bailiff Uniform                                      
                                                                                
     1. Court  bailiffs shall  have a  uniform approbated  by the               
Minister of Justice.                                                            
     2. While  fulfilling their  duties, court bailiffs must wear               
the court bailiff uniform.                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 74. The Office of Court Bailiffs                                   
                                                                                
     1. The  court bailiff's office shall be attached to the court              
and shall act as a legal person.                                                
     2. The  office shall  consist of  a  senior  bailiff,  court               
bailiffs and clerks.                                                            
     3. The  court bailiff  office shall  have  its  own  deposit               
account in the State Bank.                                                      
                                                                                
Vytautas Landsbergis                                                            
                                                                                
President                                                                       
Supreme Council                                                                 
Republic of Lithuania                                                           
                                                                                
Vilnius                                                                         
6 February 1992                                                                 
No.I-2273