REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                                    
                                                                                
                               LAW                                              
                                                                                
                      ON SCIENCE AND STUDIES                                    
                                                                                
     This Law:                                                                  
     shall be  based on the principle that the State supports and               
promotes science  and  studies,  and  considers  them  to  be  of               
particular importance  in the culture and economy of the Republic               
of Lithuania;                                                                   
     shall legitimize the indivisibility of science and studies;                
     shall make,  taking the need to humanize science and studies               
into consideration,  the scientific  activities  which  meet  the               
needs of Lithuania more progressive, and shall become more widely               
involved in universal science;                                                  
     shall recognize  scientific research  as a  form of creative               
work; and                                                                       
     shall consolidate  the academic freedom, responsibility, and               
professional and social guarantees of a scientist's activities.                 
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
                      I.GENERAL PROVISIONS                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 1. The System of Science and Studies                               
                                                                                
     The system  of  science  and  studies  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania shall consist of the following institutions:                          
     schools of higher education;                                               
     scientific institutes;                                                     
     the Lithuanian Academy of Sciences;                                        
     other scientific institutions; and                                         
     scientists or groups of scientists.                                        
                                                                                
     Article 2. The Scientist                                                   
                                                                                
     A scientist  shall be  a person  who carries  out scientific               
work, and  who has  a scientific  degree or academic (scientific)               
title.                                                                          
                                                                                
     Article 3. The Scientific Institution                                      
                                                                                
     A scientific  institution shall  be an  institution in which               
the main activity is scientific research.                                       
                                                                                
     Article 4. Schools of Higher Education                                     
                                                                                
     A school  of higher  education shall  be an  institution  of               
science and  studies in  which a  person may  earn the  degree of               
specialist or  scientist, and  in which  scientific research  and               
other types of creative work are carried out.                                   
     Studies shall include higher education, scientific training,               
and  the   improvement  and  retraining  of  specialists  holding               
diplomas. The  admissions process  (for students,  postgraduates,               
probationers, residents,  etc.)  and  the  form  and  content  of               
studies, upon  approval of  the Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania and  taking into  account the needs of the State, shall               
be established  by the  institutions of  science and studies. The               
requirements for persons beginning their first year of studies at               
a school  of higher  education shall correspond to the programmes               
of secondary education.                                                         
                                                                                
     Article 5. The Scientific Institute                                        
                                                                                
     A scientific  institute shall  be an  institution of science               
which carries out scientific research and, together with a school               
of higher  education, prepares  scientists and assists schools of               
higher education in the training of specialists.                                
                                                                                
     Article 6. The Lithuanian Academy of Sciences                              
                                                                                
     The Lithuanian  Academy of Sciences shall be an institution,               
supported by  the State,  in which  the most prominent Lithuanian               
and foreign  scientists who,  because of  their  activities,  are               
connected with  Lithuania, are  joined together.  The  Lithuanian               
Academy  of  Sciences  shall  function  in  accordance  with  its               
Statute, which  shall be adopted and amended in a general meeting               
of the  Academy of Sciences, and shall be approved by the Supreme               
Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                                           
                                                                                
     Article 7. Public Organizations of Scientists and Students                 
                                                                                
     Social organizations of scientists and students (ie. unions,               
academies of  sciences, conferences  of rectors, societies) shall               
be established  at the initiative of the members in order to meet               
professional, creative,  and social  needs.  These  organizations               
shall function  pursuant to their statutes (charters) which shall               
be  adopted   during  congresses   (conferences)  and   shall  be               
registered according to the procedures established by law.                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
              II. THE LITHUANIAN COUNCIL OF SCIENCE                             
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 8. The Self-Government of Science and Studies                      
                                                                                
     The Lithuanian  Council of  Science shall  be an independent               
institution of  science and  studies. It  shall be  considered  a               
scientific expert  by the  Supreme Council  and Government of the               
Republic of  Lithuania on  issues of  organization and finance of               
science and studies.                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 9.     The Formation and Activities of the                         
                    Lithuanian Council of Science                               
                                                                                
     The Lithuanian  Council of Science shall be formed and shall               
function according  to the  regulations approved  by the  Supreme               
Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                                           
                                                                                
     Article 10.    The Province of the Lithuanian Council of                   
                    Science                                                     
                                                                                
     The Lithuanian Council of Science:                                         
     shall present  trends  of  development  in  the  spheres  of               
science and shall assess scientific programmes of the State;                    
     shall present proposals to the Government of the Republic of               
Lithuania concerning the formation of the State draft budget;                   
     shall assess  the distribution  of finances  for science and               
studies,  as  well  as  for  the  maintenance,  development,  and               
establishment of facilities of science and studies;                             
     shall  organize   scientific  examinations  for  development               
programmes in  the spheres  of Lithuanian  economy, culture,  and               
society;                                                                        
     shall  present   proposals  concerning   the  establishment,               
reorganization, and  liquidation of  institutions of  science and               
studies; and                                                                    
     shall  present,   to  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania, its  conclusions concerning  the right of institutions               
of science  and studies  to grant  scientific degrees or academic               
(scientific) titles.                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 11. The Rights of the Lithuanian Council of Science                
                                                                                
     The Lithuanian Council of Science shall have the right:                    
     to obtain  information and  statistical data  on  issues  of               
their  own  competence  from  State  governing  institutions  and               
institutions of science and studies; and                                        
     to  settle  disputes  arising  from  the  implementation  of               
statutes (charters) of institutions of science and studies.                     
                                                                                
                                                                                
            III. INSTITUTIONS OF SCIENCE AND STUDIES                            
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 12. The State Institution of Science and Studies                   
                                                                                
     State  institutions   of  science   and  studies   shall  be               
established  (acquired)  with  state  funds.  Upon  establishment               
(reregistration) of  an institution,  the  State  shall  transfer               
state  property  to  the  said  institution  for  possession  and               
utilization.                                                                    
                                                                                
     Article 13.    Non-governmental Institutions of Science and                
                    Studies                                                     
                                                                                
     The nature  of activities,  the province,  and the rights of               
public  organizations,   as   well   as   private,   joint,   and               
international institutions  of  science  and  studies,  shall  be               
established by  their founders and by the laws of the Republic of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
     International or joint (international-domestic) institutions               
of  science   and  studies   must  receive  permission  from  the               
Government of  the Republic  of Lithuania for their activities on               
the territory of the Republic of Lithuania.                                     
                                                                                
     Article 14.    The Right of Scientists to Engage in Private                
                    Practice                                                    
                                                                                
     A scientist  (or group  of scientists)  may take part in the               
activities of  private institutions  of science  and studies,  in               
accordance with the procedures established by law.                              
                                                                                
     Article 15.    The Procedure for the Establishment of an                   
                    Institution                                                 
                                                                                
     State schools  of higher  education  shall  be  established,               
reorganized, and  liquidated, upon the proposal of the Government               
of  Lithuania,   by  the  Supreme  Council  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania. Other  State institutions of science and studies shall               
be established,  reorganized, and liquidated by the Government of               
the Republic of Lithuania.                                                      
     Non-governmental  schools   of  higher   education  may   be               
established after  being granted  a permit by the Supreme Council               
of the Republic of Lithuania.                                                   
     Non-governmental scientific  institutions  shall  be  formed               
upon the  decision of the founders and shall be based on the laws               
of the Republic of Lithuania.                                                   
     Qualification requirements  for schools  of higher education               
and scientific  institutes shall be established by the Government               
of the  Republic of Lithuania upon the proposal of the Lithuanian               
Council of Science.                                                             
                                                                                
     Article 16. The Independence of Institutions                               
                                                                                
     State schools  of  higher  education  and  State  scientific               
institutes shall have autonomy, as established by the laws of the               
Republic of  Lithuania, and  as approved  in the  statute of  the               
respective institution.  The State  may regulate an institution's               
activities by  way of  subsidies, orders (agreements) financed by               
the State,  and other  means provided for in laws of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
     The highest  decision  making  body  of  schools  of  higher               
education  and   scientific  institutes   shall  be  the  Council               
(Senate),  which  shall  be  elected  by  the  employees  of  the               
respective institution  who have  scientific degrees  or academic               
(scientific) titles. The Council (Senate) of an institution shall               
elect and  appoint institutional heads (ie. rector, director) and               
shall approve  deputies by  means of  a simple  majority vote.  A               
person may  not be  both the head of the Council (Senate) and the               
head of the institution.                                                        
     The  limits  of  independence  of  other  institutions,  the               
structure of  their  management,  and  the  procedure  for  their               
formation shall  be established by their statutes and by the laws               
of the Republic of Lithuania.                                                   
                                                                                
     Article 17. The Statutes and Charters of Institutions                      
                                                                                
     The statute  of an  institution of science and studies shall               
be the  legal act  which regulates  the activities  of schools of               
higher education  and scientific  institutes. The  charter  shall               
regulate the activities of other scientific establishments.                     
     The statute  (charter) of  an institution  which is  in  the               
process of  being established shall be drafted by the provisional               
(constituent) council  appointed by  the founder,  and  shall  be               
approved by the founder.                                                        
     The statute  of a  functioning institution  may be passed or               
ammended  either   by  a   simple  majority  vote  of  a  meeting               
(conference) of  the institution's  employees who hold scientific               
degrees or  academic (scientific)  titles, or,  on instruction of               
the meeting  (conference), by  a two-thirds  majority vote of the               
Council (senate).                                                               
     The statute  of an  institution of  science and studies must               
include:                                                                        
     1) the name of the institution;                                            
     2) the address;                                                            
     3) the main goals of it's activities, as well as the type of               
scientific and educational activities;                                          
     4) the  institution's  property,  including  plots  of  land               
transferred for  its use,  and the  terms for  the  use  of  that               
property;                                                                       
     5) the  province  of  the  Council  (Senate)  and  governing               
bodies, their composition, and their structural order.                          
     Charters of other institutions shall be formed in accordance               
with the model charter approved by the Government of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
     Other rules  may be  set forth  in statutes  and charters if               
they do  not contradict  the laws of the Republic of Lithuania or               
any international agreements.                                                   
     The Supreme  Council of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania  shall               
approve statutes  of State  schools of  higher education, and the               
Government of the Republic of Lithuania shall approve statutes of               
State scientific  institutes. Charters and amendments to charters               
shall be registered according to the procedure established by the               
Government of  the Republic  of Lithuania. Institution of science               
and studies,  with the  exception of  private institutions, shall               
have the  rights of  a legal  person beginning  the day that it's               
statute is approved or the day that it's charter is registered.                 
                                                                                
     Article 18.    The Forms of the Activities of Institutions                 
                    of Science and Studies                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
     An institution  of science  and studies  shall independently               
establish  its   structure  and  relations  with  other  partners               
(including  foreign   partners).  It   may  establish   and  hold               
scientific  and   educational   centres,   institutes,   clinics,               
experimental  stations,   faculties,  departments,  laboratories,               
observatories, museums, botanical gardens, libraries, information               
centres, enterprises,  experimental and  instructional farms, and               
other subdivisions necessary for science and studies.                           
                                                                                
     Article 19.    The Property of Institutions of Science and                 
                    Studies                                                     
                                                                                
     The property  of institutions  of science  and studies shall               
consist of  products of  creative work  (as long  as they  do not               
violate  copyright   regulations),   land,   buildings,   movable               
property, financial resources, securities, and other valuables if               
they are  not prohibited  by laws.  Institutions shall  use  this               
property in the procedure established by the laws of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
     State institutions  of science  and studies  shall,  without               
compensation, use  State property, and shall preserve and augment               
this property.                                                                  
                                                                                
     Article 20.    Associations of Institutions of Science and                 
                    Studies                                                     
                                                                                
     Institutions of  science and  studies or their subdivisions,               
may join together or with other institutions or organizations, by               
various types  of permanent  or temporary  relations, in order to               
resolve general scientific, studies, social, and economic issues.               
In such  an event, an agreement shall be made and approved by the               
Councils  (Senates)   of  the   participating  institutions.  The               
objectives of  the affiliation,  the structure of management, the               
province, and  the activities and conditions of liquidation shall               
be established in the said agreement.                                           
     Agreements  concerning   affiliations  of   institutions  of               
science  and   studies  shall  be  registered  according  to  the               
procedure established  by  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania. Associations  of science  and studies  shall have  the               
same rights  as a  legal person  from the  day of registration in               
cases provided for in the agreement.                                            
     The State  shall support  associations which are established               
with the intent to integrate science and studies.                               
                                                                                
                                                                                
            IV. THE FINANCING OF SCIENCE AND STUDIES                            
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 21.    Sources of Financing Institutions of Science                
                    and Studies                                                 
                                                                                
     Institutions  of  science  and  studies  may  receive  State               
subsidies, resources  from science  and studies  funds, and other               
resources and  means of support (grants) for science and studies.               
Institutions  of   science  and   studies  may  carry  out  State               
programmes of science and other developmental trends, may execute               
orders according to agreements (including agreements with foreign               
organizations), and  may participate  in international scientific               
programmes.                                                                     
     Applied  scientific  research  necessary  for  developmental               
programmes of  Lithuanian culture,  economy, society, well-being,               
environmental protection,  and other  fields shall be financed by               
allocations  appropriated   for  the   implementation   of   such               
programmes and for the regulation of economical development.                    
                                                                                
     Article 22. Budgetary Allocations                                          
                                                                                
     Budgetary  allocations   shall  be   appropriated  for   the               
financing of  studies, fundamental research, and applied research               
necessary for the Republic of Lithuania.                                        
     The State shall always recognize the priority of fundamental               
research of the Lithuanian language and Lithuanian culture.                     
     The Supreme  Council of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania  shall               
approve the sum total of allocations for science and studies.                   
     The Government  of the  Republic of  Lithuania, taking  into               
consideration the  Lithuanian Council of Science's examination on               
project  financing,   shall  distribute  budgetary  subsidies  to               
institutions of  science and  studies, as well as allocations for               
State  scientific   programmes,  science   and   studies   funds,               
infrastructures of  science and studies, and for other scientific               
and educational purposes.                                                       
                                                                                
     Article 23.    State Subsidies for Institutions of Science                 
                    and Studies                                                 
                                                                                
     Subsidies shall  be appropriated  to State schools of higher               
education and  to scientific  institutes, upon the recommendation               
of the  Government of  the Republic of Lithuania and the approval               
of the  Supreme Council of the Republic of Lithuania. The minimum               
amount  of   subsidization  shall   be  determined   during   the               
establishment (reregistration) of the institution.                              
                                                                                
     Article 24. State Scientific Programmes                                    
                                                                                
     The Government  of the  Republic of Lithuania shall organize               
the formation  and implementation of State scientific programmes.               
Contracts for  carrying out  State scientific programmes shall be               
made on a competitive basis.                                                    
                                                                                
     Article 25. Funds for Science and Studies                                  
                                                                                
     Funds for  science and studies shall be appropriated for the               
additional  financing   of  fundamental   researches,   for   the               
exploration of  new scientific  trends, and  for the  training of               
scientists.                                                                     
     The Government  of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania,  upon  the               
recommendation  of  the  Lithuanina  Council  of  Science,  shall               
approve boards  and  regulations  for  the  activities  of  State               
science and studies funds.                                                      
     Companies, enterprises,  organizations, and  private persons               
may  support  State  funds  for  science  and  studies,  and  may               
establish their  own funds for carrying out purposive programmes.               
The State shall grant tax deductions to legal and natural persons               
who support the activities of science and studies funds.                        
                                                                                
     Article 26.    Financial Activities of Institutions of                     
                    Science and Studies                                         
                                                                                
     Institutions of  science and  studies shall  have  available               
resources at  their  disposal  in  keeping  with  the  procedures               
established by  statutes (charters). They shall have the right to               
establish salaries  and norms for employees of various categories               
in accordance  with the  approved wage  fund (except for in cases               
when the  Government of  the Republic of Lithuania passes special               
regulating directives),  and shall  also have  the right  to sell               
scientific production and goods.                                                
     The portion  of economic  and  commercial  profit  of  State               
institutions of  science and  studies which  is allotted  for the               
financing of scientific research and studies shall not be taxed.                
                                                                                
                                                                                
         V. THE SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION AND                         
                  SCIENTIFIC DEGREES AND TITLES                                 
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 27. College and University Degrees                                 
                                                                                
     Studies of  one  or  more  levels  shall  be  recognized  in               
Lithuania. Upon  the completion  of such  studies, a  college  or               
university may  confer a Bachelor's degree, a Master's degree, or               
another degree  of qualification.  Qualification requirements for               
these degrees shall be approved by the Government of the Republic               
of Lithuania  on the  recommendation of the Lithuanian Council of               
Science.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 28. Scientific Degrees                                             
                                                                                
     Scientific degrees of Doctor and Doctor Habilius??? shall be               
conferred in the Republic of Lithuania.                                         
                                                                                
     Article 29. The Training of Scientists                                     
                                                                                
     Doctors of Science shall be trained in post-graduate studies               
for a  doctorate  degree.  The  Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania shall  approve the  post-graduate doctorate studies and               
habilitation regulations  prepared by institutions of science and               
studies on  the  recommendation  of  the  Lithuanian  Council  of               
Science.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 30.    The Procedure of Conferment and                             
                    Nostrification of Scientific Degrees                        
                                                                                
     Scientific degrees  shall be  conferred by  institutions  of               
science and  studies to  which this right has been granted by the               
Government of  the Republic  of Lithuania.  The Government of the               
Republic of  Lithuania shall regulate the procedure of conferment               
and nostrification of scientific degrees on the recommendation of               
the Lithuanian Council of Science.                                              
                                                                                
     Article 31. Academic (Scientific) Titles                                   
                                                                                
     Academic (scientific)  titles  of  Associate  Professor  and               
Professor shall  be conferred  in the  Republic of Lithuania. The               
Government  of   the  Republic   of  Lithuania   shall  establish               
qualification requirements  of academic  (scientific)  titles  as               
well as  the procedure for their conferment and nostrification on               
the recommendation of the Lithuanian Council of Science.                        
                                                                                
     Article 32.    State Registration of Scientific Degrees and                
                    Academic (Scientific) Titles                                
                                                                                
     Diplomas (certificates)  of scientific  degrees and academic               
(scientific) titles  conferred and  nostrificated in the Republic               
of Lithuania shall be registered in accordance with the procedure               
established by  the Government  of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania.               
Diplomas  (certificates)   of  scientific  degrees  and  academic               
(scientific) titles  acquired in other states and which have been               
registered  according   to  the   procedure  established  by  the               
Government of  the Republic  of Lithuania  shall be recognized in               
the Republic of Lithuania.                                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
            VI. PROFESSIONAL AND SOCIAL GUARANTEES OF                           
                     STUDENTS AND SCIENTISTS                                    
                                                                                
                                                                                
     Article 33. The Duties and Rights of Students                              
                                                                                
     Every member  of society,  according to their competence and               
knowledge, shall have the right to become a student.                            
     Statutes  (charters)  of  institutions  shall  regulate  the               
duties and  rights of  students of  institutions of  science  and               
studies.                                                                        
                                                                                
     Article 34. Student Scholarships                                           
                                                                                
     Students may  receive scholarships from enterprises, schools               
of higher  education, scientific institutes, the State, and other               
institutions.                                                                   
     State scholarships  shall be  granted to  students and post-               
graduates studying  for a  doctorate degree who do not have other               
scholarships. State  scholarships shall  be financed by the State               
subsidies and allocations appropriated to institutions of science               
and studies in the procedure established by the Government of the               
Republic of Lithuania. The amounts of other scholarships, as well               
as the  procedure of  granting them,  shall be established by the               
founders of the scholarships.                                                   
                                                                                
     Article 35. The Rights of Scientists                                       
                                                                                
     In State  institutions of  science and  studies,  scientists               
shall have  equal employment  opportunity on a competitive basis,               
regardless  of   their  sex,  race,  political  views,  religious               
convictions, nationality,  and citizenship.A scientist shall have               
the right:                                                                      
     to work either independently or in a group;                                
     to participate,on  a competitive  basis, in the execution of               
scientific programmes;                                                          
     to be  granted support from science and studies funds, to to               
utilize the appropriated resources;                                             
     to apply,  on a  competitive  basis,  for  study  (inservice               
training) both in Lithuania and abroad;                                         
     to issue scientific works;                                                 
     to obtain  information which  is necessary  for a scientific               
work from  State institutions.  If this  information is  a  State               
secret, or  a secret  otherwise established  by the Government of               
the Republic  of Lithuania,  it shall be provided and used in the               
procedure established  by  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania;                                                                      
     to participate  in adopting  decisions regarding the content               
of  the  statute  (charter)  and  plan  of  activities  of  their               
respective institution; and                                                     
     to participate in the activities of various professional and               
public associations  and organizations,  including those abroad.A               
scientist shall be guaranteed:                                                  
     norms and  authorship of  creative  works  and  products  of               
inventive  labour   as  established  in  laws  and  international               
agreements;                                                                     
     independence from ideological and political institutions;                  
     protection against  restrictions and  sanctions  for  making               
public  the   results  of  his  or  her  research,  and  for  the               
manifestation of  his or her beliefs, with the exception of cases               
when the  declared information  is a  State secret  or  a  secret               
otherwise established  by  the  Government  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
                                                                                
     Article 36. The Responsibility of a Scientist                              
                                                                                
     A scientist  must fulfill obligations and functions which he               
or she  has assumed  voluntarily, or  which  are  established  by               
statutes (charters)  of institutions of science and studies. If a               
scientist fails to fulfill these obligations and functions, he or               
she shall  be punished  according to the procedure established by               
the laws of the Republic of Lithuania.                                          
     A scientist  must adhere  to the  norms  of  scientific  and               
professional ethics.                                                            
                                                                                
     Article 37. Social Guarantees                                              
                                                                                
     Employment in  the sphere  of science  and studies and other               
labour relations  shall be  regulated by the laws of the Republic               
of Lithuania.  In addition,  if a  scientist  has  fulfilled  the               
conditions  provided  for  in  the  statutes  (charters)  of  the               
institution of  science and studies, he or she may not be removed               
from  a   non-administrative  post   on  the  initiative  of  the               
institution. The statutes may provide for other social guarantees               
as well.                                                                        
     Disputes concerning the dismissal of a scientist from office               
shall be settled in court.                                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
Vytautas Landsbergis                                                            
                                                                                
President                                                                       
Supreme Council                                                                 
Republic of Lithuania                                                           
                                                                                
Vilnius                                                                         
12 February 1991                                                                
No. I-1052