CONSTITUTION                                          
                  OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                                  
                                                                                
     (Approved by the citizens of the Republic of Lithuania                     
              in the Referendum on 25 October 1992)                             
                                                                                
                      THE LITHUANIAN NATION                                     
                                                                                
     - having  established the  State of Lithuania many centuries               
ago,                                                                            
     - having   based  its   legal foundations  on the Lithuanian               
Statutes and the Constitutions of the Republic of Lithuania,                    
     -  having   for   centuries   defended   its   freedom   and               
independence,                                                                   
     - having  preserved its  spirit, native  language,  writing,               
and customs,                                                                    
     - embodying   the  inborn   right of   each  person  and the               
People to  live   and create  freely in the land of their fathers               
and forefathers -- in the independent State of Lithuania,                       
     - fostering national concord in the land of Lithuania,                     
     - striving   for  an   open, just,    and  harmonious  civil               
society and  law-governed State,  by the  will of the citizens of               
the reborn State of Lithuania, approves and declares this                       
                                                                                
                                                                                
                          CONSTITUTION                                          
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 1                                           
                                                                                
                     THE STATE OF LITHUANIA                                     
                                                                                
                            Article 1                                           
     The State   of  Lithuania   shall be   an  independent   and               
democratic republic.                                                            
                                                                                
                            Article 2                                           
     The   State    of   Lithuania    shall  be  created  by  the               
People. Sovereignty shall be vested in the People.                              
                                                                                
                            Article 3                                           
     No one   may  limit   or restrict   the  sovereignty  of the               
People or make claims to the sovereign powers of the People.                    
The People and each citizen shall have the right to oppose anyone               
who encroaches  on the  independence, territorial  integrity,  or               
constitutional order of the State of Lithuania by force.                        
                                                                                
                            Article 4                                           
     The People   shall  exercise  the  supreme  sovereign  power               
vested in them either directly or  through  their  democratically               
elected representatives.                                                        
                                                                                
                            Article 5                                           
     In Lithuania,   the  powers  of the State shall be exercised               
by the  Seimas, the   President of  the Republic  and Government,               
and the Judiciary.                                                              
     The scope  of powers  shall be  defined by the Constitution.               
Institutions of power shall serve the people.                                   
                                                                                
                            Article 6                                           
     The Constitution    shall  be  an  integral    and  directly               
applicable statute.                                                             
     Every person   may  defend  his or  her rights  on the basis               
of the Constitution.                                                            
                                                                                
                            Article 7                                           
                                                                                
     Any law  or other statute which contradicts the Constitution               
shall be invalid.                                                               
     Only laws which are promulgated shall be valid.                            
     Ignorance  of  the  law  shall  not  exempt  a  person  from               
responsibility.                                                                 
                                                                                
                            Article 8                                           
     The forced   seizure  of   State power    or  any    of  its               
institutions shall  be    considered    an    anti-constitutional               
action,  which  is illegal and invalid.                                         
                                                                                
                            Article 9                                           
     The most   significant  issues concerning  the life  of  the               
State and the People shall be decided by referendum.                            
     In the   cases  established   by law,  referendums shall  be               
announced by the Seimas.                                                        
     Referendums shall   also  be   announced if   no  less  than               
300,000 of the electorate so request.                                           
     The procedure   for  the announcement  and  execution  of  a               
referendum shall be established by law.                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 10                                           
      The   territory  of   the State    of  Lithuania  shall  be               
integral and shall not be divided into any state derivatives.                   
     The  State   borders  may  only  be    realigned    by    an               
international treaty  of   the Republic   of Lithuania  which has               
been ratified by four-fifths of all the Seimas members.                         
                                                                                
                           Article 11                                           
     The administrative  divisions of the territory of the  State               
of Lithuania and their boundaries shall be determined by law.                   
                                                                                
                           Article 12                                           
     Citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania  shall be  acquired               
by birth or on other bases established by law.                                  
     With the  exception of  cases established  by law, no person               
may be  a citizen of the  Republic of Lithuania and another state               
at the same time.                                                               
     The procedure   for  the acquisition and loss of citizenship               
of the Republic of Lithuania shall be established by law.                       
                                                                                
                           Article 13                                           
     The State of Lithuania shall protect its citizens abroad.                  
     It shall   be  prohibited to  extradite  a  citizen  of  the               
Republic of Lithuania to another state  unless  an  international               
agreement  where   to  the  Republic  of  Lithuania  is  a  party               
establishes otherwise.                                                          
                                                                                
                           Article 14                                           
     Lithuanian shall be the State language.                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 15                                           
     The colours  of the  State flag  shall be yellow, green, and               
red.                                                                            
     The State emblem shall be a white Vytis on a red background.               
     The State flag and emblem and their use shall be established               
by law.                                                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 16                                           
     The national  anthem shall  be  Vincas  Kudirka's  "Tauti ka               
Giesm"".                                                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 17                                           
     The capital   of  the   Republic of  Lithuania shall  be the               
city  of   Vilnius,  the  long  standing  historical  capital  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 2                                           
                                                                                
                  THE INDIVIDUAL AND THE STATE                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 18                                           
     The rights and freedoms of individuals shall be inborn.                    
                                                                                
                           Article 19                                           
     The right to life of individuals shall be protected by law.                
                                                                                
                           Article 20                                           
     Personal freedom shall be inviolable.                                      
     No person   may  be arbitrarily  arrested  or  detained.  No               
person may  be deprived   of  freedom except  on the  bases,  and               
according to the procedures, which have been established in laws.               
     A person   detained  in flagrante  delicto must,  within  48               
hours, be  brought to   court  for the purpose of determining, in               
the presence  of the  detainee, the validity of the detention. In               
the event  that the  court  does not  pass a  decision to  arrest               
the     person,  the   detained  individual   shall  be  released               
immediately.                                                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 21                                           
     The person shall be inviolable.                                            
     Human dignity shall be protected by law.                                   
     It shall  be prohibited  to  torture,  injure,  degrade,  or               
maltreat a person, as well as to establish such punishments.                    
     No person   may  be   subjected to   scientific  or  medical               
testing without his or her knowledge thereof and consent thereto.               
                                                                                
                           Article 22                                           
     The private life of an individual shall be inviolable.                     
     Personal    correspondence,     telephone     conversations,               
telegraph  messages,   and  other  intercommunications  shall  be               
inviolable.                                                                     
     Information concerning   the  private  life of an individual               
may be  collected only   upon  a   justified court  order and  in               
accordance with the law.                                                        
     The  law  and  the  court  shall  protect  individuals  from               
arbitrary or  unlawful interference   in their  private or family               
life, and from encroachment upon their honour and dignity.                      
                                                                                
                           Article 23                                           
     Property shall be inviolable.                                              
     The rights of ownership shall be protected by law.ts                       
                                                                                
     Property may  only  be  seized  for  the  needs  of  society               
according to  the   procedure   established by  law and  must  be               
adequately compensated for.                                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 24                                           
     A person's dwelling place shall be inviolable.                             
     Without the   consent  of the  resident(s), entrance  into a               
dwelling place  shall   only be   permitted  upon a corresponding               
court order,  or according   to   the  procedure  established  by               
law   when   the objective of such an action is to protect public               
order, apprehend  a criminal, or save a person's life, health, or               
property.                                                                       
                                                                                
                           Article 25                                           
     Individuals  shall    have  the  right  to  have  their  own               
convictions and freely express them.                                            
     Individuals must  not be  hindered from seeking,  obtaining,               
or disseminating information or ideas.                                          
     Freedom  to  express  convictions,  as  well  as  to  obtain               
and disseminate  information,   may not  be restricted in any way               
other than as  established  by  law,  when  it is  necessary  for               
the safeguard of  the health,  honour and dignity, private  life,               
or morals  of a  person, or  for the protection of constitutional               
order.                                                                          
     Freedom to   express convictions or impart information shall               
be incompatible  with  criminal  actions  -  the  instigation  of               
national, racial,  religious,  or  social  hatred,  violence,  or               
discrimination, the dissemination of slander, or misinformation.                
     Citizens shall  have  the  right  to  obtain  any  available               
information which concerns them from State agencies in the manner               
established by law.                                                             
                                                                                
                           Article 26                                           
     Freedom of  thought, conscience,  and religion  shall not be               
restricted.                                                                     
     Every person  shall have  the right  to  freely  choose  any               
religion or  faith and,  either individually  or with  others, in               
public or  in private, to  manifest his or her  religion or faith               
in worship, observance, practice or teaching.                                   
     No person   may  coerce another  person  or  be  subject  to               
coercion to adopt or profess any religion or faith.                             
     A person's   freedom  to   profess and  propagate his or her               
religion or  faith   may be   subject  only to  those limitations               
prescribed by  law and  only when such restrictions are necessary               
to protect  the safety  of   society, public  order,  a  person's               
health or  morals, or  the fundamental  rights  and  freedoms  of               
others.                                                                         
     Parents and   legal  guardians shall  have  the  liberty  to               
ensure the  religious and  moral education  of their  children in               
conformity with their own convictions.                                          
                                                                                
                           Article 27                                           
     A person's   convictions,  professed   religion or faith may               
justify neither  the commission  of a  crime nor the violation of               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 28                                           
     While exercising   their  rights and  freedoms, persons must               
observe the  Constitution   and the   laws  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania, and  must not impair the rights and interests of other               
people.                                                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 29                                           
      All   people shall  be equal before the law, the court, and               
other State institutions and officers.                                          
     A person   may not  have his  rights restricted  in any way,               
or be granted any  privileges, on  the basis  of his  or her sex,               
race, nationality,     language,    origin,     social    status,               
religion, convictions, or opinions.                                             
                                                                                
                           Article 30                                           
     Any person   whose  constitutional rights  or  freedoms  are               
violated shall have the right to appeal to court.                               
     The law   shall  establish the  procedure  for  compensating               
material and moral damage inflicted on a person.                                
                                                                                
                           Article 31                                           
     Every person shall be presumed innocent until proven  guilty               
according to  the procedure established by law and until declared               
guilty by an effective court sentence.                                          
     Every indicted   person  shall  have the right to a fair and               
public hearing  by   an independent  and impartial court. Persons               
cannot be  compelled to   give  evidence   against themselves  or               
against their family members or close relatives.                                
     Punishments may   only  be   administered or  applied on the               
basis of law.                                                                   
     No person may be punished for the same offence twice.                      
     From   the   moment   of   arrest  or  first  interrogation,               
persons suspected  or  accused of a crime shall be guaranteed the               
right to defence and legal counsel.                                             
                                                                                
                           Article 32                                           
     Citizens may  move and  choose their  place of  residence in               
Lithuania freely, and may leave Lithuania at their own will.                    
     This right  may not  be restricted except as provided by law               
and if  it is   necessary  for  the protection  of State security               
or  the health of the people, or to administer justice.                         
     A citizen may not be prohibited from returning to Lithuania.               
     Every Lithuanian person may settle in Lithuania.                           
                                                                                
                           Article 33                                           
     Citizens  shall   have  the  right  to  participate  in  the               
government of  their State   both   directly   and  through their               
freely    elected  representatives,  and  shall  have  the  equal               
opportunity to  serve in  a  State  office  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
     Each citizen  shall be guaranteed the right to criticize the               
work of  State   institutions and   their officers, and to appeal               
against their  decisions.   It shall   be prohibited to persecute               
people for criticism.                                                           
     Citizens shall  be guaranteed  the right  to  petition;  the               
procedure for  implementing this  right shall  be established  by               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 34                                           
     Citizens who,   on the day of election, are  18 years of age               
or over, shall have the right to vote in the election.                          
     The right   to  be  elected  shall  be  established  by  the               
Constitution of  the Republic  of Lithuania  and by  the election               
laws.                                                                           
     Citizens who   are  declared   legally incapable   by  court               
shall not participate in elections.                                             
                                                                                
                           Article 35                                           
     Citizens shall   be  guaranteed the  right  to  freely  form               
societies, political  parties,   and associations,  provided that               
the  aims   and  activities   thereof  do   not  contradict   the               
Constitution and  laws. No  person   may be  forced to  belong to               
any  society,  political party, or association.                                 
     The founding   and  functioning  of  political  parties  and               
other political  and public  organisation shall  be regulated  by               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 36                                           
     Citizens may  not be prohibited or hindered from  assembling               
in unarmed peaceful meetings.                                                   
     This right   may not be subjected to any restrictions except               
those which  are  provided by  law and are necessary  to  protect               
the security  of  the  State  or  the  community,  public  order,               
people's health  or morals,  or the  rights and freedoms of other               
persons.                                                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 37                                           
     Citizens who  belong to  ethnic communities  shall have  the               
right to foster their language, culture, and customs.                           
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 3                                           
                                                                                
                      SOCIETY AND THE STATE                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 38                                           
     The family shall be the basis of society and the State.                    
     Family, motherhood,   fatherhood,  and  childhood  shall  be               
under the care and protection of the State.                                     
     Marriage shall   be  entered   into upon the free consent of               
man and woman.                                                                  
     The State  shall register marriages, births, and deaths. The               
State shall also recognise marriages registered in church.                      
     In the family, spouses shall have equal rights.                            
     The right  and duty of parents is to bring up their children               
to be  honest individuals  and loyal  citizens,  as  well  as  to               
support them until they come of age.                                            
     The duty   of  children   is to   respect their  parents, to               
care for them in old age, and to preserve their heritage.                       
                                                                                
                           Article 39                                           
                                                                                
                                                                                
     The State   shall  take   care of   families  bringing    up               
children at  home, and   shall  render them support in the manner               
established by law.                                                             
     The law   shall provide  for paid maternity leave before and               
after  childbirth,   as    well  as    for  favourable    working               
conditions  and other privileges.                                               
     Children who are under age shall be protected by law.                      
                                                                                
                           Article 40                                           
     State  and   local  government  establishments  of  teaching               
and education  shall be  secular. At the request of parents, they               
shall offer classes in religious instruction.                                   
     Non-governmental teaching   and  educational    institutions               
may   be established  according to  the procedure  established by               
law.                                                                            
     Institutions of higher learning shall be granted autonomy.                 
     The  State     shall   supervise     the  activities      of               
establishments  of teaching and education.                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 41                                           
     Education shall  be compulsory  for persons under the age of               
16.                                                                             
     Education at   State  and    local  government    secondary,               
vocational, and higher schools shall be free of charge.                         
     Everyone   shall   have   an  equal  opportunity  to  attain               
higher education  according   to  their    individual  abilities.               
Citizens who  demonstrate   suitable    academic  progress  shall               
be   guaranteed education  at establishments  of higher education               
free of charge.                                                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 42                                           
     Culture,   science,   research   and   teaching   shall   be               
unrestricted.                                                                   
     The State   shall   support   culture   and   science,   and               
shall  be concerned with  the protection  of Lithuanian  history,               
art,  and other cultural monuments and valuables.                               
     The law   shall  protect   and defend   the   spiritual  and               
material interests  of   authors which are related to scientific,               
technical, cultural, and artistic work.                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 43                                           
     The State  shall recognise  traditional Lithuanian  churches               
and religious  organisations,   as well  as  other  churches  and               
religious organisations  provided   that they   have  a  basis in               
society   and  their  teaching  and  rituals  do  not  contradict               
morality or  the  law.  Churches  and    religious  organisations               
                                                                                
recognised   by   the   State shall  have  the  rights  of  legal               
persons.                                                                        
     Churches  and     religious   organisations    shall  freely               
proclaim the  teaching of  their faith,  perform the  rituals  of               
their belief, and have houses  of prayer,  charity  institutions,               
and   educational institutions  for the  training of  priests  of               
their faith.                                                                    
     Churches   and    religious   organisations  shall  function               
freely according  to their  canons and  statutes. The  status  of               
churches  and other religious organisations in the State shall be               
established by agreement or by law.                                             
     The   teachings    proclaimed   by     churches   and  other               
religious organisations, other  religious activities,  and houses               
of prayer  may not   be  used  for purposes  which contradict the               
Constitution and the law.                                                       
     There shall not be a State religion in Lithuania.                          
                                                                                
                           Article 44                                           
     Censorship of mass media shall be prohibited.                              
     The  State,   political  parties,   political   and   public               
organisations, and  other   institutions  or  persons  may    not               
monopolise  means of mass media.                                                
                                                                                
                           Article 45                                           
     Ethnic   communities   of   citizens   shall   independently               
administer the  affairs  of   their  ethnic  culture,  education,               
organisations, charity, and  mutual assistance.  The State  shall               
support ethnic communities.                                                     
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 4                                           
                                                                                
                   NATIONAL ECONOMY AND LABOUR                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 46                                           
     Lithuania's economy   shall  be   based   on  the  right  to               
private ownership, freedom  of  individual   economic   activity,               
and initiative.                                                                 
     The State  shall support  economic  efforts  and  initiative               
which are useful to the community.                                              
     The State   shall  regulate economic  activity  so  that  it               
serves the general welfare of the people.                                       
     The law  shall prohibit  monopolisation  of  production  and               
the market, and shall protect freedom of fair competition.                      
     The State shall defend the interests of the consumers.                     
                                                                                
                           Article 47                                           
     Land, internal   waters,  forests, and parks may only belong               
to the  citizens and   the  State of the Republic of Lithuania by               
the right of ownership.                                                         
     Plots of   land  may   belong to   a  foreign  state by  the               
right   of ownership  for   the establishment  of its  diplomatic               
and consular  missions  in accordance  with   the  procedure  and               
conditions established by law.                                                  
     The right   of  ownership   of entrails   of  the  earth, as               
well  as nationally significant internal waters,  forests, parks,               
roads, and historical,  archaeological  and  cultural  facilities               
shall exclusively belong to the Republic of Lithuania.                          
     The  Republic   of  Lithuania   shall  have   the  exclusive               
ownership  right   to  the   airspace  over  its  territory,  its               
continental shelf, and the economic zone in the Baltic Sea.                     
                                                                                
                           Article 48                                           
     Every person  may freely choose an  occupation or  business,               
and shall have  the right to adequate, safe and  healthy  working               
                                                                                
conditions, adequate  compensation for  work, and social security               
in the event of unemployment.                                                   
     The employment   of foreigners  in the Republic of Lithuania               
shall be regulated by law.                                                      
     Forced labour shall be prohibited.                                         
     Military service   or alternative service, as well as labour               
which is  executed  during war,  natural calamity,  epidemic,  or               
other urgent circumstances, shall not be deemed as forced labour.               
Labour which  is performed  by convicts  in places of confinement               
and which  is regulated  by law  shall not  be deemed  as  forced               
labour either.                                                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 49                                           
     Every person  shall have  the right  to rest and leisure, as               
well as to annual paid holidays.                                                
     Working hours shall be established by law.                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 50                                           
     Trade unions   shall  be   freely   established   and  shall               
function  independently.  They  shall  defend  the  professional,               
economic, and social rights and interests of employees.                         
     All trade unions shall have equal rights.                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 51                                           
     Employees shall   have  the   right to   strike in  order to               
protect their economic and social interests.                                    
     The restrictions  of this  right,  and  the  conditions  and               
procedures for the implementation thereof shall be established by               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 52                                           
     The State   shall  guarantee   the right  of citizens to old               
age and  disability pension,  as well  as to social assistance in               
the  event   of  unemployment,  sickness,  widowhood,    loss  of               
breadwinner, and other cases provided by law.                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 53                                           
     The State   shall  take care  of people's  health and  shall               
guarantee medical aid  and services in the event of sickness. The               
procedure for  providing   medical aid   to  citizens    free  of               
charge at State medical facilities shall be established by law.                 
     The State  shall promote physical culture of the society and               
shall support sports.                                                           
     The State  and each  individual must protect the environment               
from harmful influences.                                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 54                                           
     The State  shall concern  itself with  the protection of the               
natural environment,  its   fauna and  flora, separate objects of               
nature and  particularly valuable  districts, and shall supervise               
the moderate  utilization of  natural resources  as well as their               
restoration and augmentation.                                                   
     The exhaustion   of  land   and entrails  of the  earth, the               
pollution of  waters   and air,  the  production  of  radioactive               
impact, as  well as the  impoverishment of fauna and flora, shall               
be prohibited by law.                                                           
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 4                                           
                                                                                
                           THE SEIMAS                                           
                                                                                
                           Article 55                                           
     The Seimas  shall consist of representatives  of the People.               
141 Seimas  members who shall  be elected for a four-year term on               
                                                                                
the basis  of universal,  equal, and  direct suffrage  by  secret               
ballot.                                                                         
     The Seimas   shall  be deemed  elected when  at least three-               
fifths of the Seimas members have been elected.                                 
     The electoral procedure shall be established by law.                       
                                                                                
                           Article 56                                           
     Any citizen   of the  Republic of Lithuania who is not bound               
by an  oath or   pledge  to a  foreign state,  and  who,  on  the               
election day,  is 25   years  of  age or over and has permanently               
been residing in Lithuania, may be elected a Seimas member.                     
     Persons who  have not served their courtimposed sentence, as               
well as  persons   declared legally   incapable   by  court,  may               
not  be elected members of the Seimas.                                          
                                                                                
                           Article 57                                           
     Regular elections   to  the  Seimas shall be held no earlier               
than 2 months, and no later than 1 month, prior to the expiration               
of the powers of the Seimas members.                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 58                                           
     Pre-term elections   to  the   Seimas may  be  held  on  the               
decision of  the Seimas   adopted by  three-fifths majority  vote               
of  all  the Seimas members.                                                    
     The President of the Republic of Lithuania may also announce               
pre- term elections to the Seimas:                                              
     1) if   the  Seimas   fails to  adopt a  decision on the new               
programme of the  Government within  30 days of its presentation,               
or if  the  Seimas  twice   in  succession   disapproves  of  the               
Government programme  within 60 days of its initial presentation;               
or                                                                              
     2) on   the  proposal   of the   Government,  if  the Seimas               
expresses direct non-confidence in the Government.                              
     The President  of the  Republic may  not  announce  pre-term               
elections to  the   Seimas if  the  term    of  office    of  the               
President of   the  Republic expires    within  less    than  six               
months, or  if six  months have  not passed  since  the  pre-term               
elections to the Seimas.                                                        
     The day   of  elections to the new Seimas shall be specified               
in the resolution of the Seimas or in the decree of the President               
of the  Republic concerning   the  pre-term   elections to    the               
Seimas.  The election to  the new Seimas must be organised within               
three months  from the  adoption of  the decision on the pre-term               
elections.                                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 59                                           
     The term   of  office of  Seimas members shall commence from               
the day  that the  newly-elected Seimas  convenes for  the  first               
sitting. The  powers of   the  previously  elected Seimas members               
shall expire as from the opening of the sitting.                                
     Newly-elected Seimas  members shall  acquire all  the rights               
of a  People's representative  only after  swearing in the Seimas               
to be loyal to the Republic of Lithuania.                                       
     Seimas members   who  either   do not  take an  oath in  the               
manner prescribed  by law,  or who take a conditional oath, shall               
lose the  mandate   of   a  Seimas   member.  The   Seimas  shall               
adopt  a corresponding resolution thereon.                                      
     In office,  Seimas members  shall  act  in  accordance  with               
the Constitution of  the Republic  of Lithuania, the interests of               
the State,  as  well  as  their  own  consciences,  and  may  not               
be restricted by any mandates.                                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 60                                           
     The duties   of  Seimas members, with the exception of their               
duties in  the   Seimas, shall   be incompatible  with any  other               
duties in State institutions  or organisations,  as well  as with               
work   in trade,  commercial   and other  private institutions or               
enterprises. For  term  of office, Seimas members shall be exempt               
from the duty to perform national defence service.                              
     A Seimas   member  may   be appointed    only    as    Prime               
Minister  or Minister.                                                          
     The service  of a  Seimas member  shall be  remunerated, and               
all expenses   incurred   from  parliamentary   activities  shall               
be reimbursed  with  funds from the State budget. A Seimas member               
may not receive  any other  salary, with the exception of payment               
for creative activities.                                                        
     The duties,   rights  and  guarantees of  the activities  of               
Seimas members shall be established by law.                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 61                                           
     Seimas members   shall  have  the right  to submit inquiries               
to the  Prime Minister,   the individual Ministers, and the heads               
of other  State institutions   formed  or elected  by the Seimas.               
Said persons  or bodies  must respond orally or in writing at the               
Seimas session in the manner established by the Seimas.                         
     At sessions   of  the   Seimas, a group of no less than one-               
fifth of  the  Seimas  members  may    interpellate  the    Prime               
Minister  or  a Minister.                                                       
     Upon considering   the  response   of the  Prime Minister or               
Minister to  the interpellation,  the Seimas  may decide that the               
response is not satisfactory,  and, by  a majority  vote of  half               
of   all the  Seimas members, express non-confidence in the Prime               
Minister or a Minister.                                                         
     The voting procedure shall be established by law.                          
                                                                                
                           Article 62                                           
     The person of a Seimas member shall be inviolable.                         
     Seimas members   may  not   be found criminally responsible,               
may not  be arrested,  and may  not be  subjected  to  any  other               
restriction of  personal  freedom  without  the  consent  of  the               
Seimas.                                                                         
     Seimas members   may  not  be  persecuted    for  voting  or               
speeches  in  the  Seimas.  However,  legal    actions  may    be               
instituted   against Seimas  members   according to   the general               
procedure if  they are guilty of personal insult or slander.                    
                                                                                
                           Article 63                                           
     The powers of a Seimas member shall be terminated:                         
     1) on  the expiration  of the  term of his or her powers, or               
when the  Seimas, elected in pre-term elections, convenes for the               
first sitting;                                                                  
     2) upon his or her death;                                                  
     3) upon his or her resignation;                                            
     4) when  he or  she is  declared legally  incapable  by  the               
court;                                                                          
     5) when  the Seimas revokes his or her mandate in accordance               
with impeachment proceedings;                                                   
     6) when   the  election  is recognised as invalid, or if the               
law on election is grossly violated;                                            
     7) if   he  or   she takes   up,  or   does not resign from,               
employment which  is incompatible  with the  duties of  a  Seimas               
member; and                                                                     
     8) if  he or  she  loses  citizenship  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 64                                           
     Every year,   the  Seimas   shall convene  for  two  regular               
sessions -  one in   spring  and one  in fall. The spring session               
shall commence  on March   10th  and shall  end on June 30th. The               
fall session shall commence on  September 10th  and shall  end on               
December 23rd. The Seimas may resolve to prolong a session.                     
                                                                                
     Extraordinary   sessions    shall   be    convened  by   the               
Seimas Chairperson  upon  the proposal  of at  least one-third of               
all the  Seimas members,   and,  in   cases provided  for in  the               
Constitution, by the President of the Republic.                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 65                                           
     The President   of  the Republic  shall  convene  the  first               
sitting of  the newly-elected Seimas which must be held within 15               
days of the Seimas election. If the  President  of  the  Republic               
fails   to convene  the  sitting of  the Seimas,  the members  of               
the  Seimas shall assemble  the day  following the  expiration of               
the 15-day period.                                                              
                                                                                
                           Article 66                                           
     The Chairperson   or  Assistant  Chairperson of  the  Seimas               
shall preside over sittings of the Seimas.                                      
     The sitting   directly  following   elections of  the Seimas               
shall be opened by the eldest member of the Seimas.                             
                                                                                
                           Article 67                                           
     The Seimas shall:                                                          
     1) consider and enact amendments to the Constitution;                      
     2) enact laws;                                                             
     3) adopt resolutions for the organisation of referendums;                  
     4)  announce  presidential  elections  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania;                                                                      
     5) form  State  institutions  provided  by  law,  and  shall               
appoint and dismiss their chief officers;                                       
     6) approve   or  reject   the   candidature   of  the  Prime               
Minister proposed by the President of the Republic;                             
     7) consider  the programme  of the  Government submitted  by               
the Prime Minister, and decide whether to approve it or not;                    
     8) upon    the    recommendation    of    the    Government,               
establish  or abolish ministries of the Republic of Lithuania;                  
     9) supervise   the  activities   of the  Government, and may               
express  non-confidence  in  the  Prime  Minister  or  individual               
Ministers;                                                                      
                                                                                
     10)  appoint    judges  to,    and  Chairpersons    of,  the               
Constitutional Court and the Supreme Court;                                     
     11)  appoint    to,  and  dismiss  from,  office  the  State               
Controller as well as the Chairperson of the Board of the Bank of               
Lithuania;                                                                      
     12) announce local government Council election;                            
     13)  form   the  Central   Electoral  Committee  and  change               
its composition;                                                                
     14)  approve     the  State    budget  and    supervise  the               
implementation thereof;                                                         
     15) establish State taxes and other obligatory payments;                   
     16)  ratify   or  denounce  international  treaties  whereto               
the Republic  of   Lithuania is   a  party,   and consider  other               
issues of foreign policy;                                                       
     17) establish administrative divisions of the Republic;                    
     18) establish State awards of the Republic of Lithuania;                   
     19) issue acts of amnesty; and                                             
     20) impose   direct  administration and martial law, declare               
states of emergency,  announce mobilisation,  and adopt decisions               
to use the armed forces.                                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 68                                           
     The right  of legislative  initiative in  the  Seimas  shall               
belong to  the members  of  the  Seimas,  the  President  of  the               
Republic, and the Government.                                                   
     Citizens of   the Republic  of Lithuania shall also have the               
right of  legislative  initiative. A  draft law  may be submitted               
to the  Seimas by   50,000 citizens  of the Republic of Lithuania               
who have  the right  to vote. The Seimas must consider this draft               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 69                                           
     Laws shall  be enacted  in the  Seimas  in  accordance  with               
the procedure established by law.                                               
     Laws shall   be  deemed   adopted if  the  majority  of  the               
Seimas members  participating  in  the  sitting  vote  in  favour               
thereof.                                                                        
     Constitutional laws   of  the Republic of Lithuania shall be               
deemed adopted  if   more than   half  of all  the members of the               
Seimas vote  in the   affirmative. Constitutional  laws shall  be               
amended by  at least  a three-fifths  majority vote  of  all  the               
Seimas  members.   The  Seimas   shall     establish  a  list  of               
constitutional laws by a three-fifths majority vote of the Seimas               
members.                                                                        
     Provisions of   the  laws   of the Republic of Lithuania may               
also be adopted by referendum.                                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 70                                           
     The laws  enacted by  the Seimas  shall  be  enforced  after               
the signing and official promulgation thereof by the President of               
the Republic,   unless     the   laws   themselves  establish   a               
later enforcement date.                                                         
     Other acts   adopted  by the  Seimas  and the Statute of the               
Seimas shall  be signed  by the  Chairperson of  the Seimas. Said               
acts shall become effective the day  following  the  promulgation               
thereof, unless  the   acts themselves   provide   for    another               
procedure  of enforcement.                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 71                                           
     Within ten   days  of   receiving a   law  passed    by  the               
Seimas, the President of  the  Republic  shall  either  sign  and               
officially promulgate  said   law, or  shall  refer  it  back  to               
the  Seimas together with relevant reasons for reconsideration.                 
     In the   event  that   the law  enacted by the Seimas is not               
referred back  or   signed by   the  President  of  the  Republic               
within   the  established  period,    the  law    shall    become               
effective   upon  the signing and  official promulgation  thereof               
by the Chairperson of the Seimas.                                               
     The President   of  the   Republic must,   within five days,               
sign and  officially promulgate  laws and  other acts  adopted by               
referendum.                                                                     
     In the  event that  the President  of the  Republic does not               
sign and  promulgate such   laws within  the established  period,               
said   laws shall  become   effective  upon   being  signed   and               
officially promulgated by the Chairperson of the Seimas.                        
                                                                                
                           Article 72                                           
     The Seimas  may reconsider  and enact  laws which  have been               
referred back by the President of the Republic.                                 
     After reconsideration   by  the   Seimas,  a  law  shall  be               
deemed enacted  if   the  amendments  and  supplements  submitted               
by  the President of  the Republic  were adopted, or if more than               
half of all the  Seimas members  vote in  the affirmative, and if               
it is  a constitutional  law   - if  at least three-fifths of all               
the Seimas members vote in the affirmative.                                     
     The President   of  the   Republic must,  within three days,               
sign and  forthwith officially  promulgate laws  reenacted by the               
Seimas.                                                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 73                                           
     Seimas  controllers  shall  examine complaints of   citizens               
concerning the  abuse of powers by, and bureaucracy of, State and               
local  government   officers  (with  the  exception  of  judges).               
                                                                                
Controllers shall have the right to submit proposals to the court               
to dismiss guilty officers from their posts.                                    
     The powers of the Seimas controllers shall be established by               
law.  As   necessary,  the  Seimas  shall  also  establish  other               
institutions  of   control.  The  system    and  powers  of  said               
institutions shall be established by law.                                       
                                                                                
                           Article 74                                           
     For gross  violation of the Constitution, breach of oath, or               
upon the  disclosure   of the   commitment of  felony, the Seimas               
may, by  three-fifths majority  vote of  all the  Seimas members,               
remove from office the President of the Republic, the Chairperson               
and judges  of the  Constitutional Court,   the  Chairperson  and               
judges of  the Supreme  Court,  the  Chairperson  and  judges  of               
the   Court   of Appeals,  as   well as   Seimas  members, or may               
revoke their  mandate of  Seimas member.  Such actions  shall  be               
carried out  in accordance  with impeachment   proceedings  which               
shall be  established by the Statute of the Seimas.                             
                                                                                
                           Article 75                                           
     Officers  appointed  or  chosen  by  the  Seimas  (with  the               
exception of persons specified  in Article  74) shall  be removed               
from office  when the   Seimas,  by  majority  vote  of  all  the               
members, expresses non-confidence in the officer in question.                   
                                                                                
                           Article 76                                           
     The structure   and  procedure of  activities of  the Seimas               
shall be determined by  the Statute  of the  Seimas. The  Statute               
of  the Seimas shall have the power of law.                                     
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 6                                           
                                                                                
                  THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 77                                           
     The President of the Republic is the head of State.                        
     The President   shall represent  the State  of Lithuania and               
shall perform  all  the duties  which he  or she  is charged with               
by the Constitution and laws.                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 78                                           
     Any person  who is a citizen  of the  Republic of  Lithuania               
by birth,  who   has lived   in Lithuania  for at  least the past               
three years, who has reached  the age of 40 prior to the election               
day, and  who is  eligible for  election to  Seimas member may be               
elected President of the Republic.                                              
     The President  of the  Republic  shall  be  elected  by  the               
citizens of the Republic of Lithuania  on the basis of universal,               
equal, and  direct suffrage  by secret  ballot for a term of five               
years.                                                                          
     The same   person  may  not  be  elected  President  of  the               
Republic of Lithuania for more than two consecutive terms.                      
                                                                                
                           Article 79                                           
     Any citizen  who meets  the requirements  set forth  in Part               
1 of  Article 78   and has  collected the  signatures of at least               
20,000 voters shall be registered as a presidential candidate.                  
     The number of presidential candidates shall not be limited.                
                                                                                
                           Article 80                                           
     Regular presidential   elections  shall  be held on the last               
Sunday two months  before the  expiration of  the term  of office               
of the President of the Republic.                                               
                                                                                
                           Article 81                                           
     The candidate   for the  post of  President of  the Republic               
who, during  the   first election  round in which at least a half               
of the voters participate,  receives the  votes of more than half               
of all  the voters who voted in the election, shall be deemed the               
elected candidate.  If   less  than  a  half  of  the  registered               
voters participate in  the election, the candidate  who  receives               
the greatest  number   of votes,  but no  less than  one-third of               
votes of all the voters, shall be deemed the elected candidate.                 
     If, during  the first  election round,  no single  candidate               
gets the  requisite number  of votes,  a repeat election shall be               
organised after  two   weeks between   the  two candidates    who               
received   the  greatest  number  of  votes.  The  candidate  who               
receives more votes thereafter shall be deemed elected.                         
     If no   more  than   two candidates   take part in the first               
election round,  and   not one   of them  receives the  requisite               
number  of votes, a repeat election shall be held.                              
                                                                                
                           Article 82                                           
     The elected   President  of   the Republic  shall begin  his               
duties on  the day   following  the   expiration of  the term  of               
office of  the President  of  the Republic, after, in Vilnius and               
in the presence of the  representatives of  the People  - members               
of the  Seimas, taking an  oath to  the People,  swearing  to  be               
loyal   to  the Republic of  Lithuania and  the Constitution,  to               
conscientiously fulfill  the   duties of  President,  and  to  be               
equally just  to all.  The President  of the Republic, upon being               
re-elected, shall take the oath as well.                                        
     The act   of  oath of the President of the Republic shall be               
signed by  the   President and  by  the    Chairperson  of    the               
Constitutional Court, or,  in the  absence of the chairperson, by               
a judge of the Constitutional Court.                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 83                                           
     The President   of  the  Republic may not be a member of the               
Seimas or  hold   any other  office, and   may  not  receive  any               
remuneration other than the salary established for  the President               
as well as compensation for creative activities.                                
     A person   elected  President  of the  Republic must suspend               
his  or   her  activities  in  political  parties  and  political               
organisations until a new presidential election campaign begins.                
                                                                                
                           Article 84                                           
     The President of the Republic shall:                                       
     1) settle  basic foreign  policy issues  and, together  with               
the Government, implement foreign policy;                                       
      2) sign international treaties of the Republic of Lithuania               
and submit them to the Seimas for ratification;                                 
     3) appoint   or  recall,  upon  the  recommendation  of  the               
Government, diplomatic   representatives  of  the  Republic    of               
Lithuania   in foreign  states and  international  organisations;               
receive  letters   of   credence   and   recall   of   diplomatic               
representatives of  foreign  states;  confer  highest  diplomatic               
ranks and special titles;                                                       
     4)  appoint,    upon  approval  of  the  Seimas,  the  Prime               
Minister, charge  him   or her  to  form  the  Government,    and               
approve  its composition;                                                       
     5) remove,  upon approval  of the Seimas, the Prime Minister               
from office;                                                                    
     6) accept  the powers  returned by  the Government  upon the               
election of  a   new Seimas,   and   charge   it   to    continue               
exercising  its functions until a new Government is formed;                     
     7) accept   resignations  of   the   Government   and,    as               
necessary, charge  it   to continue   exercising its functions or               
charge one  of the  Ministers  to exercise  the functions  of the               
Prime Minister  until   a    new  Government  is  formed;  accept               
                                                                                
resignations   of individual  Ministers   and commission  them to               
continue in office until a new Minister is appointed;                           
     8) submit   to  the   Seimas, upon  the resignation  of  the               
Government or  after   it returns  its powers  and no  later than               
within 15  days, the  candidature of  a new  Prime  Minister  for               
consideration;                                                                  
     9)    appoint   or   dismiss   individual   Ministers   upon               
the recommendation of the Prime Minister;                                       
     10) appoint   or  dismiss,   according  to  the  established               
procedure, state officers provided by law;                                      
     11) propose  Supreme Court  judge candidates  to the Seimas,               
and, upon  the   appointment of   all  the Supreme  Court judges,               
recommend from  among   them a   Supreme   Court  Chairperson  to               
the   Seimas; appoint,  with the approval of the Seimas, Court of               
Appeal judges,  and from   among  them   - the   Court  of Appeal               
Chairperson; appoint  judges and   chairpersons  of  district and               
local district  courts, and  change  their places  of office;  in               
cases   provided by   law, propose the dismissal of judges to the               
Seimas;                                                                         
     12)   propose    to   the   Seimas   the   candidatures   of               
three Constitutional  Court  judges, and, upon appointing all the               
judges of   the     Constitutional  Court,  propose,  from  among               
them,   a candidate  for Constitutional  Court Chairperson to the               
Seimas;                                                                         
     13)  propose     to  the    Seimas  candidates    for  State               
Controller  and  Chairperson  of    the  Board  of  the  Bank  of               
Lithuania; if  necessary, propose  to   the  Seimas   to  express               
non-confidence  in  said officials;                                             
     14) appoint  or dismiss,  upon the  approval of  the Seimas,               
the chief  commander of  the Army  and the  head of  the Security               
Service; 15) confer highest military ranks;                                     
     16) adopt,   in the event of an armed attack which threatens               
State sovereignty or territorial integrity, decisions  concerning               
defence against  such armed aggression, the imposition of martial               
law, and  mobilisation, and  submit these  decisions to  the next               
sitting of the Seimas for approval;                                             
     17) declare  states of emergency according to the procedures               
and situations established  by law, and submit these decisions to               
the next sitting of the Seimas for approval;                                    
     18) make  annual reports  in the Seimas about  the situation               
in Lithuania  and   the domestic  and  foreign  policies  of  the               
Republic of Lithuania;                                                          
     19)  call,   in  cases   provided   in   the   Constitution,               
extraordinary sessions of the Seimas;                                           
     20) announce   regular  elections   to the  Seimas, and,  in               
cases set  forth in   part  2 of  Article 58 of the Constitution,               
announce pre- term elections to the Seimas;                                     
     21) grant    citizenship  of    the  Republic  of  Lithuania               
according to the procedure established by law;                                  
     22) confer State awards;                                                   
     23) grant pardons to sentenced persons; and                                
     24) sign  and promulgate laws enacted by the Seimas or refer               
them back  to   the Seimas  according to  the procedure  provided               
for in Article 71 of the Constitution.                                          
                                                                                
                           Article 85                                           
     The President   of  the Republic,  implementing  the  powers               
vested in  him or  her, shall  issue acts-decrees. Decrees of the               
President, specified  in   items 3,  15, 17,  and 21  of  Article               
84   of  the Constitution, shall  be valid  only if they bear the               
signature of  the Prime  Minister  or  an  appropriate  Minister.               
Responsibility for  such decrees   shall  lie   with the    Prime               
Minister or the Minister who signed it.                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 86                                           
                                                                                
     The person   of  the President  of  the  Republic  shall  be               
inviolable: while  in   office, the   President  may  neither  be               
arrested     nor  charged   with   criminal   or   administrative               
proceedings.                                                                    
     The President  of the  Republic may  be prematurely  removed               
from office  only   for gross   violation  of   the Constitution,               
breach of  the oath  of office,  or conviction of an offence. The               
Seimas shall  resolve issues   concerning  the   dismissal of the               
President of  the Republic  from office  according to impeachment               
proceedings.                                                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 87                                           
     When, in  cases  specified  in  part  2  of  Article  58  of               
the Constitution, the  President of  the Republic  announces pre-               
term elections  to   the Seimas, the newly-elected Seimas may, by               
three- fifths  majority vote of all the Seimas members and within               
30 days  of the  first  sitting,  announce  a  pre-term  election               
of  the President of the Republic.                                              
     If the  President of  the  Republic  wishes  to  compete  in               
the election,   he   or   she  shall  immediately  be  registered               
as  a candidate.                                                                
     If the   President  of   the   Republic   is  re-elected  in               
such   an election,  he   or she   shall be  deemed elected for a               
second term,  provided that  more than  three years  of the first               
term had  expired prior to the election. If the expired period of               
the first  term is  less than  three years,  the President of the               
Republic shall  only be  elected  for the  remainder of the first               
term, which shall not be considered a second term.                              
     If a  pre-term election for the  President of  the  Republic               
is announced  during the President's  second  term,  the  current               
President of  the Republic  may only be elected for the remainder               
of the second term.                                                             
                                                                                
                           Article 88                                           
     The powers  of  the  President  of  the  Republic  shall  be               
terminated:                                                                     
     1) upon the expiration of the term of office;                              
     2) upon holding a pre-term presidential election;                          
     3) upon resignation from office;                                           
     4) upon the death of the President of the Republic;                        
     5)  when  the  Seimas  removes  the  President  from  office               
according to impeachment proceedings; and                                       
     6)  when     the   Seimas,  taking  into  consideration  the               
conclusion  of  the  Constitutional  Court  and  by  three-fifths               
majority vote  of all  the Seimas members,  adopts  a  resolution               
stating   that   the President  of   the Republic   is unable  to               
fulfill  the duties  of office for reasons of health.                           
                                                                                
                           Article 89                                           
     In the   event  that  the President  dies or is removed from               
office according  to   impeachment proceedings,  or if the Seimas               
resolves that  the President  of   the Republic   is  unable   to               
fulfill  the duties of  office for  reasons of health, the duties               
of President  shall temporarily   be  passed  over to  the Seimas               
Chairperson. In such a  case, the Chairperson of the Seimas shall               
lose his  or her  powers in  the Seimas, and at the behest of the               
Seimas, the  duties of  Chairperson  shall temporarily be carried               
out by  the Assistant  Chairperson. In   said  cases, the  Seimas               
shall announce,  within 10 days, an election for the President of               
the Republic  which must be held within two months. If the Seimas               
cannot convene  and announce  the election  for the  President of               
the Republic, the election shall be announced by the Government.                
     The Chairperson   of  the Seimas shall act for the President               
of the  Republic when   the  President   is temporarily    absent               
beyond   the boundaries  of the  country or has fallen ill and by               
                                                                                
reason thereof  is temporarily  unable to  fulfill the  duties of               
office.                                                                         
     While temporarily acting for  the President of the Republic,               
the Chairperson  of the  Seimas  may  neither  announce  pre-term               
elections of  the Seimas  nor   dismiss   or   appoint  Ministers               
without   the agreement  of  the Seimas.  During the said period,               
the Seimas  may not consider  the issue  of lack of confidence in               
the Chairperson of the Seimas.                                                  
     The powers   of  the   President of  the Republic may not be               
executed  in  any  other  cases,  or  by  any  other  persons  or               
institutions.                                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 90                                           
     The President  of the  Republic shall  have  residence.  The               
financing of the President of the Republic and of the President's               
residence shall be established by law.                                          
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 7                                           
                                                                                
           THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                          
                                                                                
                           Article 91                                           
     The Government   of  the Republic of Lithuania shall consist               
of the Prime Minister and Ministers.                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 92                                           
     The Prime   Minister  shall,   with the   approval  of   the               
Seimas, be  appointed  or  dismissed  by  the  President  of  the               
Republic.                                                                       
     The Ministers  shall be  appointed by  the President  of the               
Republic on the nomination of the Prime Minister.                               
     The Prime   Minister,  within  15 days  of being  appointed,               
shall present  the   Government which   he  or she has formed and               
which has  been approved  by the President of the Republic to the               
Seimas and shall submit  the programme  of its  activities to the               
Seimas for consideration.                                                       
     The Government   shall  return  its powers  to the President               
of the Republic  after the  Seimas  elections  or  upon  electing               
the President of the Republic.                                                  
     A new   Government  shall   be empowered  to act  after  the               
Seimas approves  its  programme by  majority vote  of the  Seimas               
members participating in the sitting.                                           
                                                                                
                           Article 93                                           
     On entering  upon  their  duties,  the  Prime  Minister  and               
the individual Ministers  shall, in  the Seimas,  take an oath to               
be loyal  to  the  Republic  of  Lithuania  and  to  observe  the               
Constitution and  laws. The text of the oath shall be established               
by the Law on the Government.                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 94                                           
     The Government of the Republic of Lithuania shall:                         
     1)   administer   the  affairs   of  the   country,  protect               
the inviolability of  the territory of the Republic of Lithuania,               
and ensure State security and public order;                                     
     2)  implement    laws  and    resolutions  of    the  Seimas               
concerning the  implementation of laws, as well as the decrees of               
the President;                                                                  
     3)   coordinate    the  activities  of  the  ministries  and               
other governmental institutions;                                                
     4) prepare   the  draft  budget of  the State  and submit it               
to the  Seimas; execute  the  State  Budget  and  report  on  the               
fulfillment of the budget to the Seimas;                                        
     5)  draft   bills  and   submit  them   to  the  Seimas  for               
consideration;                                                                  
     6) establish   diplomatic relations  and maintain  relations               
with foreign countries and international organisations; and                     
     7) discharge  other duties  prescribed to the Government  by               
the Constitution and other laws.                                                
                                                                                
                           Article 95                                           
     The Government  of the Republic of  Lithuania shall  resolve               
the affairs  of   State administration   at   its   sittings   by               
issuing directives which must be passed by a majority vote of all               
members of  the   Government. The    State  Controller  may  also               
participate in the sittings of the Government.                                  
     Government directives shall be  signed by the Prime Minister               
and the appropriate Minister.                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 96                                           
     The Government   of  the   Republic of  Lithuania shall   be               
jointly responsible  to  the Seimas  for the  general  activities               
of  the Government.                                                             
     The  Ministers, in directing the spheres  of  administration               
entrusted to  them, shall  be  responsible  to  the  Seimas,  the               
President of  the Republic, and directly subordinate to the Prime               
Minister.                                                                       
                                                                                
                           Article 97                                           
     The Prime  Minister shall  represent the  Government of  the               
Republic of Lithuania and shall direct its activities.                          
     In the   absence  of the  Prime Minister,  or when the Prime               
Minister is unable  to fulfill  his or her duties,  the President               
of the  Republic of  Lithuania, upon the  recommendation  of  the               
Prime Minister,  shall charge  one of the Ministers to substitute               
for the  Prime Minister   during  a period not exceeding 60 days;               
when there  is no  recommendation, the  President of the Republic               
shall charge  one of  the Ministers  to substitute  for the Prime               
Minister.                                                                       
                                                                                
                           Article 98                                           
     Ministers shall   head  their   respective ministries, shall               
resolve issues  assigned   to the competence of their ministries,               
and shall also discharge other functions prescribed by laws.                    
     A Minister   may  be temporarily substituted only by another               
member of the Government appointed by the Prime Minister.                       
                                                                                
                           Article 99                                           
     The Prime   Minister  and  Ministers may  not hold any other               
office subject  to   nomination   or  election,  may    not    be               
employed   in business, commercial  or other private institutions               
or companies, and may  not receive  any  remuneration other  than               
the     salary  established  for  their    respective  Government               
offices   and compensation for creative activities.                             
                                                                                
                           Article 100                                          
     The Prime   Minister  and Ministers  may not  be prosecuted,               
arrested or  have   their freedoms   restricted in  any other way               
without the  preliminary consent   of  the   Seimas, or,   if the               
Seimas is not in session, of the President of the Republic.                     
                                                                                
                           Article 101                                          
     Upon the   request  of   the Seimas,   the  Government    or               
individual Ministers  must give an account of their activities to               
the Seimas.                                                                     
     When more   than  half of  the Ministers  are  changed,  the               
Government must  be   re-invested with  authority by  the Seimas.               
Otherwise, the Government must resign.                                          
     The Government must also resign if:                                        
     1)  the  Seimas  disapproves  two  times  in  succession  of               
the programme of the newly-formed Government;                                   
     2) the   majority  of   all the   Seimas deputies  express a               
lack of  confidence in the Government or in the Prime Minister in               
a secret ballot vote;                                                           
     3) the Prime Minister resigns or dies; or                                  
     4) after Seimas elections, when a new Government is formed.                
     A Minister   must  resign  if more  than a  half of  all the               
Seimas members  express, in  a secret  ballot  vote,  a  lack  of               
confidence in him or her.                                                       
     The President   of  the  Republic shall  accept resignations               
of the Government or individual Ministers.                                      
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 8                                           
                                                                                
                    THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 102                                          
     The Constitutional   Court shall decide whether the laws and               
other legal  acts   adopted by   the  Seimas   are in  conformity               
with  the Constitution and  legal acts  adopted by  the President               
and  the Government, do not violate the Constitution or laws.                   
     The status   of  the Constitutional  Court and the procedure               
for the  execution of   powers  thereof  shall be  established by               
the Law on the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania.               
                                                                                
                           Article 103                                          
     The Constitutional Court shall consist of 9 judges appointed               
for an unrenewable  term of 9 years. Every three years, one-third               
of the  Constitutional Court  shall be  reconstituted. The Seimas               
shall choose 3  candidates for  Constitutional Court judges  from               
the candidates   nominated    by  the  President of the  Republic               
of Lithuania,  3    candidates  from    those  nominated  by  the               
Chairperson of  the   Seimas, and    3  candidates    from  those               
nominated   by   the Chairperson  of   the Supreme    Court;  the               
Seimas shall appoint the candidates that they choose as judges.                 
     The  Seimas    shall  appoint    the  Chairperson    of  the               
Constitutional Court  from   among the  judges thereof and on the               
nomination of the President of the Republic of Lithuania.                       
     Citizens of   the  Republic   of Lithuania   who  have    an               
impeccable reputation,  who   are trained   in  law, and who have               
served, for  at least  10   years, in  the  legal  profession  or               
in   an   area  of education related to his or her qualifications               
as a  lawyer, shall  be eligible  for appointment  as  judges  of               
the  Constitutional Court.                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 104                                          
     In fulfilling   their duties,  judges of  the Constitutional               
Court shall  act independently  of any  other State  institution,               
person  or   organisation,  and     shall   observe     only  the               
Constitution  of  the Republic of Lithuania.                                    
     Before entering   office, judges of the Constitutional Court               
shall, in  the   Seimas, swear  to be faithful to the Republic of               
Lithuania and the Constitution.                                                 
     The restrictions  on work  and  political  activities  which               
are imposed  on  court judges  shall  also  apply  to  judges  of               
the Constitutional Court.                                                       
     Judges of   the  Constitutional  Court shall  have the  same               
rights concerning  the   inviolability of  their person  as shall               
members of the Seimas.                                                          
                                                                                
                           Article 105                                          
     The Constitutional   Court   shall   consider   and    adopt               
decisions concerning the  conformity of  laws of  the Republic of               
Lithuania  and   legal  acts  adopted  by  the  Seimas  with  the               
Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania.                                      
                                                                                
     The Constitutional  Court shall also consider the conformity               
with the Constitution of:                                                       
     1) legal acts of the President; and                                        
     2) legal acts of the Government.                                           
     The   Constitutional   Court   shall   present   conclusions               
concerning:                                                                     
     1) the   violation  of   election laws  during  presidential               
elections or elections to the Seimas;                                           
     2) whether  the President  of the  Republic  of  Lithuania's               
health is not limiting his or her capacity to continue in office;               
     3) the    conformity  of  international  agreements  of  the               
Republic of Lithuania with the Constitution; and                                
     4) the  compliance with the Constitution of concrete actions               
of Seimas  members    or  other    State  officers  against  whom               
impeachment proceedings have been instituted.                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 106                                          
     The Government,  no less  than one-fifth  of the  members of               
the Seimas,  and  the courts  shall have  the  right  to  address               
the Constitutional Court  concerning legal acts specified in part               
1 of Article 105.                                                               
     No less  than one-fifth  of the  members of  the Seimas  and               
the courts  shall   have the  right to address the Constitutional               
Court concerning  the   conformity of   acts  of   the  President               
with  the Constitution and the laws.                                            
     No less   than  one-fifth of  the members of the Seimas, the               
courts, and  the  President of  the Republic  of Lithuania  shall               
have the  right to  address the Constitutional  Court  concerning               
the conformity of  an act of the Government with the Constitution               
and the laws.                                                                   
     Upon the   proposal  of the President or the decision of the               
Seimas to  investigate   the conformity   of  an   act  with  the               
Constitution, the applicability of the act shall be suspended.                  
     The Seimas may request a conclusion from the  Constitutional               
Court, and in cases concerning Seimas elections and international               
agreements, the  President of  the Republic of Lithuania may also               
request a conclusion.                                                           
The Constitutional Court shall have the right to refuse to accept               
cases for  investigation or  to prepare conclusions if the appeal               
is not based on legal motives.                                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 107                                          
     Laws (or  parts thereof) of the Republic of Lithuania or any               
other acts  (or   parts thereof)  of  the  Seimas,  acts  of  the               
President of  the Republic   of  Lithuania,   and acts  (or parts               
thereof) of  the Government   may    not  be   applied  from  the               
day  of   official  promulgation   of   the   decision   of   the               
Constitutional Court  that  the  act  in    question  (or    part               
thereof)  is  inconsistent with  the Constitution of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
     The decisions of the Constitutional Court on issues assigned               
to its  jurisdiction  by the  Constitution shall be final and may               
not be appealed.                                                                
     On the   basis  of the  conclusions  of  the  Constitutional               
Court, the  Seimas shall   have a  final decision  on the  issues               
set forth in part 3 of Article 105 of the Constitution.                         
                                                                                
                           Article 108                                          
     The powers   of  a   judge of   the   Constitutional   Court               
shall  be terminated:                                                           
     1) on the expiration of the term of office;                                
     2) upon the death of the judge;                                            
     3) upon voluntary resignation;                                             
     4) when   the  judge   is incapable  to fulfill  his or  her               
duties for health reasons; and                                                  
                                                                                
     5) upon   being  removed from office by the Seimas according               
to the impeachment proceedings.                                                 
                                                                                
                                                                                
                            CHAPTER 9                                           
                                                                                
                            THE COURT                                           
                                                                                
                           Article 109                                          
     In the  Republic of  Lithuania, the  courts shall  have  the               
exclusive right to administer justice.                                          
     While administering  justice, judges and  courts   shall  be               
independent.                                                                    
     While investigating cases, judges shall obey only the law.                 
     The court shall adopt  decisions on  behalf of  the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 110                                          
     Judges may not apply laws which contradict the Constitution.               
     In cases   when there are grounds to believe that the law or               
other legal   act applicable  in   a  certain   case  contradicts               
the Constitution,  the judge  shall suspend the investigation and               
shall appeal  to  the Constitutional  Court to decide whether the               
law  or   other  legal   act  in   question  complies   with  the               
Constitution.                                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 111                                          
     The court   system  of   the Republic   of  Lithuania  shall               
consist of  the Supreme   Court,  the  Court of  Appeal, district               
courts,  and local courts.                                                      
     For the  investigation of administrative, labour, family and               
other litigations,  specialised    courts  may    be  established               
pursuant to law.                                                                
     Courts with  special powers  may not  be established  in the               
Republic of Lithuania in times of peace.                                        
     The formation  and competence  of courts shall be determined               
by the Law on Courts of the Republic of Lithuania.                              
                                                                                
                           Article 112                                          
     In Lithuania,   only  citizens  of the Republic of Lithuania               
may be judges.                                                                  
     Supreme Court   judges,  as   well as the Chairperson of the               
Supreme Court,  who   shall be  chosen from  among them, shall be               
appointed  and   dismissed     by  the     Seimas     upon    the               
recommendation  of  the President of the Republic of Lithuania.                 
     Judges  of     the  Court    of  Appeals,  as  well  as  the               
Chairperson, who  shall be   chosen  from  among them,  shall  be               
appointed   by  the President of  the Republic  of Lithuania upon               
the approval of the Seimas.                                                     
     Judges and  chairpersons of  district courts,  local courts,               
and other  specialised   courts shall   be  appointed,    and  if               
necessary, transferred  to   other places   of  office,   by  the               
President of the Republic of Lithuania.                                         
     A special   institution  of   judges provided  by law  shall               
submit  recommendations   to   the   President   concerning   the               
appointment of judges, as well as their promotion,  transference,               
or dismissal from office.                                                       
     A person  appointed  as  judge  shall  swear,  according  to               
the procedure  established   by law,    to  be  faithful  to  the               
Republic of  Lithuania and to administer justice only pursuant to               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 113                                          
     Judges may  not hold  any other  elected or appointed posts,               
and may not be  employed in  any business,  commercial, or  other               
private institution or  company. They  are also  not permitted to               
receive any  remuneration   other than the salary established for               
judges as well  as   payments  for  educational,  scientific,  or               
creative activities.                                                            
     Judges may  not participate  in the  activities of political               
parties and other political organisations.                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 114                                          
     Institutions of   State  power  and administration,  members               
of the  Seimas    and    other   officers,   political   parties,               
public organizations,  and   citizens shall  be  prohibited  from               
interfering with  the  activities of  a judge  or the  court, and               
violation of this shall incur liability.                                        
     Judges may   not  have   legal actions   instituted  against               
them, nor  may they   be  arrested or  restricted    of  personal               
freedom without  the consent   of  the   Seimas, or in the period               
between sessions  of the Seimas, of the President of the Republic               
of Lithuania.                                                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 115                                          
     Court judges of the Republic of Lithuania shall be dismissed               
from office according  to the  procedure established  by  law  in               
the following cases:                                                            
     1) at their own will;                                                      
     2) upon    expiration  of  their  powers  or  upon  reaching               
pensionable age as determined by law;                                           
     3) for reasons of health;                                                  
     4)   upon    appointment   to     another   office  or  upon               
voluntary transference to another place of office;                              
     5) if  their behaviour  discredits their  position as judge;               
and                                                                             
     6) when judgment imposed on them by court comes into force.                
                                                                                
                           Article 116                                          
     If the  Chairperson or judges of the Supreme Court or of the               
Court of  Appeals grossly  violate the  Constitution, break their               
oath, or  are found  guilty of  an offence, the Seimas may remove               
them from office according to impeachment proceedings.                          
                                                                                
                           Article 117                                          
     In all   courts,  the  investigation of  cases shall be open               
to the  public. Closed  court sittings  may be  held in  order to               
protect the  secrecy of  a citizen's  or the  citizen's  family's               
private  life,   or  to  prevent    the  disclosure    of  State,               
professional, or commercial secrets.                                            
     In the    Republic  of  Lithuania,  court  trials  shall  be               
conducted in the State language.                                                
     Persons who  do not speak Lithuanian shall be guaranteed the               
right to  participate   in investigation  and  court  proceedings               
through an interpreter.                                                         
                                                                                
                           Article 118                                          
     Public prosecutors   shall  prosecute   criminal cases    on               
behalf of  the State,   shall carry  out  criminal  prosecutions,               
and  shall supervise the activities of the interrogative bodies.                
     Pretrial   interrogation    shall   be    carried   out   by               
investigators.                                                                  
     The procedure  for the  appointment  of  public  prosecutors               
and judges and their status shall be established by law.                        
                                                                                
                                                                                
                           CHAPTER 10                                           
                                                                                
              LOCAL GOVERNMENTS AND ADMINISTRATION                              
                                                                                
                           Article 119                                          
                                                                                
     Administrative units   provided  by law  on State  territory               
shall be  entitled to  the right  of self-government.  This right               
shall be implemented through local government Councils.                         
     Members of  local government Councils shall be elected for a               
two- year  term on  the basis  of  universal,  equal  and  direct               
suffrage  by   secret  ballot     by  the    residents  of  their               
administrative  unit   who  are   citizens  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
     The procedure   for   the  organisation  and  activities  of               
self- government institutions shall be established by law.                      
     Local government   Councils  shall   form  executive  bodies               
which are  accountable to   them for the direct implementation of               
the laws  of the  Republic of  Lithuania and the decisions of the               
Government and the local government Council.                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 120                                          
     The State shall support local governments.                                 
     Local governments   shall  act    freely  and  independently               
within  the   limits  of  their  competence    which  shall    be               
established  by  the Constitution and laws.                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 121                                          
     Local governments shall draft and approve their own budget.                
     Local  government  Councils  shall  have  the  right  within               
the established limits and according to the procedure provided by               
law to  establish local  dues, and to provide for the leverage of               
taxes and duties at the expense of their own budget.                            
                                                                                
                           Article 122                                          
     Local government  Councils shall have the right to appeal to               
court regarding the violation of their rights.                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 123                                          
     In higher  level administrative  units,  the  administration               
shall be  organised by the Government according to the  procedure               
established by law.                                                             
     Representatives shall  be appointed  by  the  Government  to               
supervise that the  Constitution and  the laws are observed,  and               
that the decisions of the Government are implemented.                           
     The powers of Government representatives and  the procedures               
of their implementation shall be established by law.                            
     In cases   and  according to procedures provided by law, the               
Seimas may   introduce  direct administration on local government               
territory.                                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 124                                          
     Deeds and   actions  of  local government  Councils as  well               
as   of their  executive   bodies and  officers which violate the               
rights of  citizens and  organisations may be appealed against in               
court.                                                                          
                                                                                
                                                                                
                           CHAPTER 11                                           
                                                                                
                   FINANCES, THE STATE BUDGET                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 125                                          
     In the  Republic of Lithuania, the central bank shall be the               
Bank of Lithuania, which is owned by the State.                                 
     The Bank   of  Lithuania shall have  the exclusive  right to               
issue bank notes.                                                               
     The procedures  for the  organisation and  activities of the               
Bank of  Lithuania as  well as its powers shall be established by               
law.                                                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 126                                          
     The Bank   of Lithuania shall be directed by the Bank Board,               
which shall consist  of the  Board Chairperson, the  deputies  to               
the Chairperson, and the Board members.                                         
     The Board  Chairperson of  the Bank  of Lithuania  shall  be               
appointed for a  five-year term by the  Seimas on  the nomination               
of  the President of the Republic of Lithuania.                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 127                                          
     The budgetary   system  of   the Republic of Lithuania shall               
consist of  the   independent State  budget of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania and the independent local governments budgets.                        
     State budget    revenues  shall  be  accrued    from  taxes,               
compulsory payments,  dues, receipts  from  State  property,  and               
other income.  Taxes, other budgetary payments, and dues shall be               
established by the laws of the Republic of Lithuania.                           
                                                                                
                           Article 128                                          
     Decisions   concerning    State   loans  and  other    basic               
property liabilities  of   the State   shall  be adopted  by  the               
Seimas on the recommendation of the Government.                                 
     Procedures  concerning   the  management,  utilisation,  and               
disposal of State property shall be established by law.                         
                                                                                
                           Article 129                                          
     The budget  year shall begin on the 1st of January and shall               
end on the 31st of December.                                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 130                                          
     The Government  of the Republic of Lithuania shall prepare a               
draft budget  of  the State, and shall submit it to the Seimas no               
later than 75 days before the end of the budget year.                           
                                                                                
                           Article 131                                          
     The draft   budget  of the  State shall be considered by the               
Seimas, and  shall   be approved   by law by the beginning of the               
new budget year.                                                                
     Upon considering  the draft  budget,  the  Seimas  may  only               
increase expenditures  upon specifying  financial   sources   for               
said expenditures.  Expenditures   established by  law may not be               
reduced as long as said laws are not amended.                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 132                                          
     If the   State  Budget   is not  approved by  the prescribed               
date, monthly budget  expenditures at the beginning of the budget               
year may not  exceed one-twelfth of the State Budget expenditures               
of the previous budget year.                                                    
     During the  budget year the Seimas may change the budget. It               
shall be changed  according to  the same procedure  by  which  it               
was drafted, adopted and approved. As necessary, the  Seimas  may               
approve an additional budget.                                                   
                                                                                
                                                                                
                           CHAPTER 12                                           
                                                                                
                      CONTROL OF THE STATE                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 133                                          
     The system    and  powers    of  State    control  shall  be               
established by law.                                                             
     State control  shall be directed by the State Controller who               
shall be appointed  for  a  five-year  term  by  the Seimas  upon               
the nomination of the President of the Republic of Lithuania.                   
     Before taking   office, the  State Controller  shall take an               
oath. The oath shall be established by law.                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 134                                          
     State control shall supervise the legality of the management               
and utilisation  of State  property   and the  realisation of the               
State budget.                                                                   
     The State   Controller  shall  give an account to the Seimas               
on the annual execution of the State budget.                                    
                                                                                
                                                                                
                           CHAPTER 13                                           
               FOREIGN POLICY AND NATIONAL DEFENCE                              
                                                                                
                           Article 135                                          
     In conducting   foreign  policy,  the Republic  of Lithuania               
shall pursue   the     universally   recognized   principles  and               
norms  of international law, shall strive  to safeguard  national               
security and  independence   as well   as   the   basic   rights,               
freedoms   and welfare  of  its citizens,  and shall take part in               
the creation  of sound  international  order  based  on  law  and               
justice.                                                                        
     In the  Republic  of  Lithuania,  war  propaganda  shall  be               
prohibited.                                                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 136                                          
     The  Republic   of   Lithuania   shall   participate      in               
international organizations provided  that they do not contradict               
the interests and independence of the State.                                    
                                                                                
                           Article 137                                          
     Weapons of  mass destruction  and foreign military bases may               
not be stationed on the territory of the Republic of Lithuania.                 
                                                                                
                           Article 138                                          
     The Seimas  shall either  ratify or  denounce  international               
treaties of the Republic of Lithuania which concern:                            
     1) the   realignment  of   the State    borders    of    the               
Republic  of Lithuania;                                                         
     2)  political cooperation with foreign   countries,   mutual               
assistance, or treaties related to national defence;                            
     3) the renunciation of  the utilisation  of, or  threatening               
by, force, as well as peace treaties;                                           
     4) the   stationing  and status  of the  armed forces of the               
Republic of Lithuania on the territory of a foreign state;                      
     5) the   participation   of   Lithuania   in   universal  or               
regional international organisations; and                                       
     6) multilateral or long-term economic agreements.                          
     Laws and   international  treaties   may provide   for other               
cases in which the  Seimas shall  ratify  international  treaties               
of  the Republic of Lithuania.                                                  
     International agreements   which  are ratified by the Seimas               
of the  Republic of   Lithuania  shall be the constituent part of               
the legal system of the Republic of Lithuania.                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 139                                          
     The defence   of  the  state of Lithuania from foreign armed               
attack shall  be   the right   and  duty of  every citizen of the               
Republic of Lithuania.                                                          
     Citizens of  the Republic  of Lithuania are obliged to serve               
in the national defence service or to perform alternative service               
in the manner established by law.                                               
     The organisation of national  defence shall  be  established               
by laws.                                                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 140                                          
     The main  issues of  national defence  shall  be  considered               
and coordinated by  the State  Defence Council which, consists of               
the President of  the Republic  of Lithuania, the Prime Minister,               
the Seimas  Chairperson,  the Minister  of National  Defence, and               
the Chief  Commander   of the   Army.  The State  Defence Council               
shall be  headed by   the President of the Republic of Lithuania.               
Procedures for  its   formation, activities  and powers  shall be               
established by law.                                                             
     The Chief  Commander  of  the  armed  forces  shall  be  the               
President of the Republic of Lithuania.                                         
     The Government,   the Minister  of National Defence, and the               
Chief Commander  of   the Army shall be responsible to the Seimas               
for the  provision and    command  of  State  armed  forces.  The               
Minister   of National  Defence   may not be a serviceman who has               
not yet retired from active service.                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 141                                          
     Soldiers in   active   military   service   or   alternative               
service, officers of  the national  defence, the  police and  the               
internal service,  non-commissioned   officers, re-enlistees  who               
have   not retired  from   service, and   other paid  officers of               
military and  security services   may  not   be members   of  the               
Seimas or of local government Councils. They may not hold elected               
or appointed  posts in  State   civil service,   and may not take               
part  in  the  activities  of  political  parties  and  political               
organisations.                                                                  
                                                                                
                           Article 142                                          
     The  Seimas    shall  impose  martial  law,  shall  announce               
mobilisation or  demobilisation,   and shall  adopt decisions  to               
use   the armed  forces in   defence  of  the homeland or for the               
fulfillment of the international obligations of Lithuania.                      
     In the   event  of  an  armed  attack  which  threatens  the               
sovereignty of the State or territorial integrity, the  President               
of   the Republic  of  Lithuania  shall  immediately  pass      a               
decision concerning  defence   against such    armed  aggression,               
shall impose  martial law   throughout the country or in separate               
parts thereof,  shall declare   mobilisation,  and   shall submit               
these decisions  to the  next   sitting of   the  Seimas; in  the               
period between  sessions, the President shall immediately convene               
an unscheduled  session of the Seimas.  The Seimas  shall approve               
or abolish  the decision  of the  President of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania.                                                                      
                                                                                
                           Article 143                                          
     In the   event  that   a regular  election must  be held  in               
time of  military actions,   either  the Seimas  or the President               
shall adopt  a decision   to  extend the terms of the Seimas, the               
President,  and  local  government    Councils.  In  such  cases,               
elections must be held within three months of the end of the war.               
                                                                                
                           Article 144                                          
     In the   event  that   the constitutional   system or public               
order of  the State   is threatened,  the Seimas  may  declare  a               
state   of emergency  throughout   the country,   or  in separate               
parts thereof, for a period not exceeding six months.                           
     In the   event  of   emergency, and  if the Seimas is not in               
session, the  President of  the Republic  shall have the right to               
pass such a decision, and  shall, at  the same  time, convene  an               
unscheduled session  of   the Seimas   for  the  consideration of               
this issue.  The Seimas shall  approve or abolish the decision of               
the President of the Republic of Lithuania.                                     
     States of emergency shall be regulated by law.                             
                                                                                
                           Article 145                                          
     During martial  law or  a state  of  emergency,  the  rights               
and freedoms specified  in Articles 22, 24, 25, 32, 35, and 36 of               
the Constitution may be temporarily restricted.                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 146                                          
     The State   shall  provide   and care   for  soldiers  whose               
health is  damaged during   military service,  as well as for the               
families  of  soldiers  who  lose  their  lives  during  military               
service.                                                                        
     The State  shall also  provide for  citizens whose health is               
damaged while  defending  the homeland,  and for  the families of               
citizens who lose their lives in defence of the State.                          
                                                                                
                                                                                
                           CHAPTER 14                                           
                                                                                
                    AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION                                   
                                                                                
                           Article 147                                          
     In order   to  amend   or append  the  Constitution  of  the               
Republic of  Lithuania, a   proposal  must   be submitted  to the               
Seimas by either no less  than one-fourth  of the  members of the               
Seimas, or by at least 300,000 voters.                                          
     During a   state  of  emergency or  martial law,  amendments               
to the Constitution may not be made.                                            
                                                                                
                           Article 148                                          
     The provision   of  Article 1  of the  Constitution that the               
State of  Lithuania is  an independent  democratic  republic  may               
only   be amended  by a  referendum   in which   at  least three-               
fourths of the electorate of Lithuania vote in favour thereof.                  
     The provisions  of Chapter  1  ("The  State  of  Lithuania")               
and Chapter  14   ("Amending the   Constitution")  may be amended               
only by referendum.                                                             
     Amendments   of other  chapters  of  the  Constitution  must               
be considered  and   voted upon  in the  Seimas twice. There must               
be a lapse of  at least  three months  between each  vote.  Bills               
for constitutional  amendments   shall be   deemed adopted by the               
Seimas if,  in  each of the votes, at least two-thirds of all the               
members of the Seimas vote in favour of the enactment.                          
     An amendment   to  the Constitution which is rejected by the               
Seimas may  not   be submitted to the  Seimas for reconsideration               
for the period of one year.                                                     
                                                                                
                           Article 149                                          
     The adopted   law on an amendment to the  Constitution shall               
be signed  by the  President of  the Republic  of  Lithuania  and               
officially promulgated within 5 days.                                           
     If the   President  of   the Republic  of Lithuania does not               
sign and  promulgate such a law  in  due  time,  this  law  shall               
become effective  when the  Chairperson   of  the   Seimas  signs               
and promulgates it.                                                             
     The   law   on   an  amendment  to  the  Constitution  shall               
become effective  no earlier  than one  month after  the adoption               
thereof.                                                                        
                                                                                
                        FINAL PROVISIONS                                        
                                                                                
                           Article 150                                          
     The constituent    parts  of    the  Constitution    of  the               
Republic  of Lithuania shall be:                                                
     The   11   February   1991   Constitutional   Law   "On  the               
State  of Lithuania";                                                           
     The 8   June  1992  Constitutional Act "On the Non-Alignment               
of the Republic of Lithuania with Post-Soviet Eastern Alliances".               
                           Article 151                                          
     This Constitution   of  the   Republic  of  Lithuania  shall               
become effective  the   day following  the official  promulgation               
of    the  results  of  the  Referendum,  provided  that  in  the               
Referendum more than half of the electorate of Lithuania voted in               
favour thereof.                                                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 152                                          
     The procedure  for  the  enforcement  of  this  Constitution               
and separate  provisions  thereof shall  be regulated  by Law  of               
the Republic of  Lithuania "On the Procedure  for the Enforcement               
of the  Constitution   of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania",  which,               
together with  this Constitution  of the  Republic  of Lithuania,               
shall be adopted by referendum.                                                 
                                                                                
                           Article 153                                          
     Upon the  adoption of  this Constitution in the  Referendum,               
the Seimas  of   the Republic   of  Lithuania may, by  25 October               
1993, amend  by three-fifths  majority vote  of  all  the  Seimas               
members the  provisions of  the Constitution  of the  Republic of               
Lithuania set  forth in  Articles 47,  55, 56,  in item  2 of the               
second part  of Article  58, in  Articles 65, 68, 69, in items 11               
and 12  of Article  84, in  the first  part  of  Article  87,  in               
Articles 96, 103, 118 and in the fourth part of Article 119.                    
                           Article 154                                          
     Upon their  adoption  by  referendum,  the  Constitution  of               
the Republic  of   Lithuania and   the  Law   of the  Republic of               
Lithuania  "On   the    Procedure  for  the  Enforcement  of  the               
Constitution of  the Republic  of  Lithuania" shall be signed and               
promulgated within  15 days  by   the President   of  the Supreme               
Council of the Republic of Lithuania.                                           
_____________                                                                   
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
 LAW ON THE PROCEDURE FOR THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION OF                
                    THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA                                   
                                                                                
                            Article 1                                           
     Upon the  enforcement of the Constitution  of  the  Republic               
of Lithuania,  the Provisional  Basic  Law  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania shall become null and void.                                           
                                                                                
                            Article 2                                           
     Laws, other   legal  acts, or  parts thereof  which were  in               
effect on  the territory   of  the Republic of Lithuania prior to               
the adoption  of the    Constitution  of    the    Republic    of               
Lithuania,   shall   be effective  provided   that they   do  not               
contradict the  Constitution and  this   law, and   shall  remain               
effective until  they are  either declared  null    and  void  or               
coordinated with the provisions of the Constitution.                            
                                                                                
                            Article 3                                           
     Provisions of   the   laws  of  the  Republic  of  Lithuania               
which determine the  status of  the supreme institutions of State               
power and  administration  of the  Republic of  Lithuania as well               
as  the  status  of  deputies  and  local  governments  shall  be               
effective until the elected Seimas decides otherwise.                           
                                                                                
                            Article 4                                           
     The powers   of  the   Supreme Council   and  its   deputies               
shall  be terminated when  the elected  Seimas of the Republic of               
Lithuania convenes into its first sitting.                                      
     The members   of  the  Seimas of  the Republic  of Lithuania               
shall convene   in   a   sitting   on   the   third  working  day               
after   the announcement  of   the Central   Electoral Committee,               
following both  election rounds,  that at  least 3/5  of all  the               
members  of the Seimas have been elected.                                       
                                                                                
                            Article 5                                           
     The following   text  shall   be the   established  oath  of               
members of the Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania:                             
     "I (full name),                                                            
     Swear to be faithful to the Republic of Lithuania;                         
     Swear to   respect  and  observe its  Constitution and  laws               
and to protect the integrity of its territories;                                
     Swear   to   strengthen,  to   the   best  of  my   ability,               
the independence  of  Lithuania,  and  to  conscientiously  serve               
my Homeland,   Democracy,   and  the  well-being  of  the  people               
of Lithuania. So help me God."                                                  
     The oath may also be taken omitting the last sentence.                     
                                                                                
                            Article 6                                           
     The legal   situation  during the  period that  there is  no               
President of  the    Republic  shall    be  equivalent    to  the               
situation which is provided for in Article 89 of the Constitution               
of the Republic of Lithuania.                                                   
     As necessary,  the Seimas,  by a  majority vote of more than               
half of  all the   members  of   the Seimas, may prolong the term               
provided in Article 89 for a period not exceeding four months.                  
                                                                                
                            Article 7                                           
     Judges of   the  Constitutional Court  of  the  Republic  of               
Lithuania, including  the   Chairperson of    the  Constitutional               
Court, must  be appointed  not   later than  one month  after the               
President of the Republic is elected.                                           
     Upon the   initial  appointment   of   Constitutional  Court               
judges, three  of them  shall be appointed for a three-year term,               
three for a six-year term, and three for a nine-year term.                      
     The President  of  the  Republic,  the  Chairperson  of  the               
Seimas, and  the Chair-person   of  the   Supreme  Court    shall               
indicate   in their  proposals to   appoint Constitutional  Court               
judges   which of them shall be  appointed for three years, which               
for six, and which for nine.                                                    
     The judges  of the  Constitutional Court  who are  appointed               
for three  or  six-year terms  may hold  the same  office for one               
more term after an interval of at least three years.                            
                                                                                
                            Article 8                                           
     The provisions  of part  3 of Article 20 of the Constitution               
of the  Republic of   Lithuania shall  become applicable once the               
laws on  the   criminal procedure  of the   Republic of Lithuania               
are coordinated with this Constitution.                                         
                                                                                
                                                                                
                                                                                
VYTAUTAS LANDSBERGIS                                                            
President                                                                       
Supreme Council                                                                 
Republic of Lithuania                                                           
                                                                                
                                                                                
Vilnius                                                                         
6 November 1992                                                                 
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