On  Ethnic Minorities                                     
     The Lithuanian  SSR* shall  guarantee to  all  its  citizens               
regardless of  ethnicity, equal  political, economic,  and social               
rights  and   freedoms,  shall  recognise  its  citizens'  ethnic               
identity, the  continuity of  their culture,  and  shall  promote               
ethnic consciousness and the expression thereof.                                
     People of  all ethnic  groups   residing in  Lithuania  must               
observe the Fundamental Law of the Lithuanian SSR and other laws,               
protect Lithuania's state sovereignty  and territorial integrity,               
contribute to  the establishment  of an  independent,  democratic               
state in  Lithuania,  and  respect  Lithuania's  state  language,               
culture, traditions, and customs.                                               
     Article 1.  The Lithuanian SSR, adhering to the principles of              
ethnic equality  and  humanism,  shall  guarantee  to  all  ethnic              
minorities residing  in Lithuania the right to freely develop, and              
shall respect every ethnic minority and language.                               
     Any  discrimination   with  regard  to  race,  ethnicity  or               
nationality, language or anything else related to ethnicity shall               
be prohibited  and  punished under the procedures provided by the               
laws of the Lithuanian SSR.                                                     
     Article 2.  The state shall provide equal protection for all               
the citizens of  the Lithuanian SSR, regardless of ethnicity.                   
The Lithuanian  SSR, taking  into account  the interests  of  all               
ethnic minorities  shall guarantee   them the right under the law               
and the procedures thereunder:                                                  
     to obtain  aid from  the state  to develop their culture and               
     to have  schooling in  one's native language, with provision               
for  preschool education, other classes, elementary and secondary               
school education, as well as provision for groups,  faculties and               
departments at institutions of higher learning to train  teachers               
and other  specialists needed  by ethnic  minorities;(amended  on               
January 29,1991);                                                               
     to have newspapers and other publications and information in               
one's native language;                                                          
     to profess  any or  no religion, and to perform religious or               
folk observances in one's native language;                                      
     to form ethnic cultural organisations;                                     
     to  establish  contact  with  persons  of  the  same  ethnic               
background abroad;                                                              
     to be  represented in government bodies at all levels on the               
basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage; and                             
     to hold any post in the bodies of state power or government,               
as well as in  enterprises, institutions or organisations.                      
     Article 3.  Depending on  demand  and  [economic]  capacity,               
Lithuanian  institutions   of  higher  learning  and  specialised               
secondary  schools,   through  contract  with  state  and  public               
organisations, shall train specialists to respond to the needs of               
particular ethnic cultures.                                                     
     When necessary,  citizens of Lithuania may be sent abroad to               
     Article 4.  In offices  and organisations  located  in  areas              
serving  substantial  numbers  of  a  minority  with  a  different              
language, the  language spoken  by that  minority shall be used in              
addition to the Lithuanian language.(amended on January 29,1990)                
     Article 5. Signs used in the areas indicated in Article 4 of               
this law   may  be in the Lithuanian language and in the language               
used by that  minority.(amended on January 29,1990)                             
     Article 6.  Historical  and  cultural  monuments  of  ethnic               
minorities shall  be considered  part of the cultural heritage of               
Lithuania and shall be protected by the state.                                  
     Article 7. Cultural organisations of ethnic minorities shall               
also  have  the  right  to  establish  educational  and  cultural               
institutions on  their account.   The  state shall provide aid to               
organisations  and  institutions  that  serve  these  minorities'               
educational and cultural purposes.(amended on January 29,1990)                  
     Article 8. Every citizen of the Lithuanian SSR upon obtaining              
a passport   shall  be free to identify his ethnicity on the basis              
of the nationality of his parents or of one of his parents.                     
     Article 9.  Public  and  cultural  organisations  of  ethnic               
minorities shall  be established,  shall function,  and shall  be               
dissolved or  terminated  according to the procedures established               
by law. (amended on January 29,1990)                                            
     Article 10.  Public committees  of ethnic  minorities may be               
established through  the Supreme Soviet** and Local Soviets*** of               
People's Deputies of the Lithuanian SSR.  The composition of such               
committees shall  be coordinated with the public organisations of               
such ethnic  minorities.  The powers of these committees shall be               
established by the bodies that form them.                                       
     Under the  Council of  Ministers of  the Lithuanian  SSR,  a               
Committee on  Ethnic Minorities  shall be  established to address               
the social and cultural needs of ethnic minorities.                             
Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR                           
Secretary  of  the  Presidium  of  the  Supreme  Council  of  the               
Lithuanian SSR                                                                  
23 November 1989                                                                
No XI-3412                                                                      
Editor's Note:                                                                  
*Lithuanian  SSR,  **Supreme  Soviet,  and  ***Local  Soviets  of               
People's Deputies  are terms  of the  "Soviet" era, and have been               
substituted with new terms reflecting Lithuania's reestablishment               
of independence.   In  all current  laws  these  terms  are:  The               
Republic of  Lithuania, the  Supreme Council,  and Local Council.               
The functions  of the  Supreme Council  and of the Local Councils               
are changing,  as Lithuania  moves away  from Soviet  models  and               
Soviet ways  of thinking  to Western models  and Western modes of               
thought.   This is  a painful  process, but is real and should be               
taken seriously  by all  foreigners who  wish to  understand what               
Lithuania is  trying to accomplish, not only for Lithuanians, but               
for the benefit of all of the people of Lithuania.